Reference work entry
Carcinoma with apocrine differentiation; Invasive apocrine carcinoma
Carcinoma with apocrine differentiation (invasive apocrine carcinoma) is defined by “WHO Classification of Tumours of the Breast” as “any invasive carcinoma in which cells show the cytological features of apocrine cells” (O’Malley and Lakhani 2012). More strictly, it is a breast cancer characterized by apocrine morphology (abundant eosinophilic and granular cytoplasm, centrally/eccentrically located nuclei with prominent nucleoli and distinct cell borders) and a distinct steroid receptor profile: Estrogen receptor (ER)-negative and androgen receptor (AR)-positive cells (Vranic et al. 2013) (Fig. 1a– c).
- Costa, L. J., Justino, A., Gomes, M., Alvarenga, C. A., Gerhard, R., Vranic, S., Gatalica, Z., Machado, J. C., & Schmitt, F. (2013). Comprehensive genetic characterization of apocrine lesions of the breast. Cancer Research, 73, 2013.Google Scholar
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- O’Malley, F., & Lakhani, S. R. (2012). Carcinoma with apocrine differentiation. In S. R. Lakhani, I. O. Ellis, S. J. Schnitt, P. H. Tan, & M. J. van de Vijver (Eds.), World Health Organization classification of tumours of the breast (4th ed., pp. 53–54). Lyon: International Agency of Research and Cancer (IARC).Google Scholar
- Vranic, S., Gatalica, Z., Frkovic-Grazio, S., Deng, H., Lee, L. M. J., Gurjeva, O., & Wang, Z. Y. (2011). ER-α36 a novel isoform of ER-α66 is commonly over-expressed in apocrine and adenoid cystic carcinoma of the breast. Journal of Clinical Pathology, 64, 54–57.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
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