Gang Violence: Examining Ecological, Cultural, Social Psychological, and Psychological Factors Across the Life Course

  • Timothy R. LaugerEmail author
  • Sou Lee
Living reference work entry


This chapter examines gang violence across the life course. Gang members are often exposed to violence at an early age, but joining a gang increases their participation in and exposure to violence. The prevalence of violence in gang life is then influenced by the intersection of ecological, cultural, social psychological, and psychological factors, which increase the probability gang members will be exposed to potentially violent situations and guide their options for managing such situations. This chapter, therefore, examines how these intersecting elements of gang life influence gang members and contribute to gang violence.


Gang violence Gang culture Gang identity Turning point Mental health 


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Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Criminology and Criminal JusticeNiagara UniversityLewistonUSA
  2. 2.Southern Illinois University CarbondaleCarbondaleUSA

Section editors and affiliations

  • Michael B. Greene
    • 1
  • Robert L. Johnson
    • 2
  1. 1.School of Criminal JusticeRutgers UniversityNewarkUSA
  2. 2.Rutgers New Jersey Medical SchoolNewarkUSA

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