Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome (PRES)

  • Claudia GodiEmail author
  • Andrea Falini
Living reference work entry


Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) encompasses a spectrum of imaging manifestations associated with acute encephalopathy and definite predisposing factors (hypertension, pregnancy, pathological conditions, and drugs). Although PRES was named after the first radiology reports with classic imaging presentations, not all cases of PRES are posterior or reversible. It is now clear that PRES shares imaging and pathogenic similarities with other conditions (e.g., reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome, RCVS), that may represent a disease continuum rather than separate entities. Consistent medical history and clinical neuroradiology findings (vasogenic edema in typical locations) are crucial elements for diagnosis. Overall, PRES is a relatively benign condition that generally resolves after the treatment of the underpinning factors.


PRES Vasogenic edema Hypertension Eclampsia Chemotherapy 



Apparent Diffusion Coefficient


Amyloid-Related Imaging Abnormalities


Arterial Spin Labeling


Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy-related inflammation


Computed Tomography


Dynamic Susceptibility Contrast


Diffusion-Weighted Imaging


Fast Field Echo T2*


Fluid-Attenuated Inversion Recovery




Hexa-Methyl-Propylene-Amine Oxime


Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome




Intravenous Immunoglobulins


Magnetic Resonance Angiography


Magnetic Resonance Imaging


Mean Transit Time


Non-enhanced CT


Polyarteritis Nodosa


Primary Central Nervous System Vasculitis


Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome


Spinal Cord Involvement in PRES


Regional Cerebral Blood Flow


Regional Cerebral Blood Volume


Reversible Cerebral Vasoconstriction Syndrome


Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography


Susceptibility-Weighted Imaging




Time of Flight


Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Functional Neuroradiology Unit, Neuroradiology Department, Division of NeuroscienceIRCCS Ospedale San RaffaeleMilanItaly

Section editors and affiliations

  • Andrea Falini
    • 1
  1. 1.Ospedale San RaffaeleMilanItaly

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