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Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome (PRES)

  • Claudia GodiEmail author
  • Andrea Falini
Living reference work entry

Abstract

Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) encompasses a spectrum of imaging manifestations associated with acute encephalopathy and definite predisposing factors (hypertension, pregnancy, pathological conditions, and drugs). Although PRES was named after the first radiology reports with classic imaging presentations, not all cases of PRES are posterior or reversible. It is now clear that PRES shares imaging and pathogenic similarities with other conditions (e.g., reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome, RCVS), that may represent a disease continuum rather than separate entities. Consistent medical history and clinical neuroradiology findings (vasogenic edema in typical locations) are crucial elements for diagnosis. Overall, PRES is a relatively benign condition that generally resolves after the treatment of the underpinning factors.

Keywords

PRES Vasogenic edema Hypertension Eclampsia Chemotherapy 

Abbreviations

ADC

Apparent Diffusion Coefficient

ARIA

Amyloid-Related Imaging Abnormalities

ASL

Arterial Spin Labeling

CAAri

Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy-related inflammation

CT

Computed Tomography

DSC

Dynamic Susceptibility Contrast

DWI

Diffusion-Weighted Imaging

FFE T2*

Fast Field Echo T2*

FLAIR

Fluid-Attenuated Inversion Recovery

Gad

Gadolinium

HMPAO

Hexa-Methyl-Propylene-Amine Oxime

HUS

Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome

IFN-alpha

Interferon-alpha

IVIg

Intravenous Immunoglobulins

MRA

Magnetic Resonance Angiography

MRI

Magnetic Resonance Imaging

MTT

Mean Transit Time

NECT

Non-enhanced CT

PAN

Polyarteritis Nodosa

PCNSV

Primary Central Nervous System Vasculitis

PRES

Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome

PRES-SCI

Spinal Cord Involvement in PRES

rCBF

Regional Cerebral Blood Flow

rCBV

Regional Cerebral Blood Volume

RCVS

Reversible Cerebral Vasoconstriction Syndrome

SPECT

Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography

SWI

Susceptibility-Weighted Imaging

Tc99m

Technetium-99

TOF

Time of Flight

TTP

Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura

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Further Reading

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Functional Neuroradiology Unit, Neuroradiology Department, Division of NeuroscienceIRCCS Ospedale San RaffaeleMilanItaly

Section editors and affiliations

  • Andrea Falini
    • 1
  1. 1.Ospedale San RaffaeleMilanItaly

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