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Status Epilepticus

  • Silvana Sarria-EstradaEmail author
  • Manuel Toledo
Living reference work entry

Abstract

The early detection of status epilepticus is a key factor to reduce mortality and long-term consequences. Overall, computed tomography (CT) is the most relevant tool to define the etiologic diagnosis in the acute situation. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) increases the specificity, with diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and T2-weighted imaging, showing signal alterations in certain cerebral areas, suggestive of status epilepticus (hippocampus, thalamus, cortical regions, and cerebellum). The use of perfusion techniques with either CT or MR may lead to identification of focal hyperperfusion regions matching the epileptogenic sources during the status epilepticus. Finally, in the long-term follow-up, MR can show the potential consequences of the status epilepticus, like mesial temporal sclerosis or focal cortical atrophy.

Keywords

Epilepsy Status epilepticus Imaging Neuroradiology Seizures Perfusion Diffusion Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) Computed tomography (CT) 

Abbreviations

ADC

Apparent diffusion coefficient

BBB

Blood-brain barrier

CNS

Central nervous system

CT

Computed tomography

DWI

Diffusion-weighted imaging

EEG

Electroencephalography

FIRES

Febrile infection-related epilepsy syndrome

MRI

Magnetic resonance imaging

NORSE

New-onset refractory status epilepticus

PRES

Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome

PWI

Perfusion-weighted imaging

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Suggested Readings

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.MR Unit, Radiology DepartmentVall d’Hebron University HospitalBarcelonaSpain
  2. 2.Epilepsy Unit, Neurology DepartmentVall d’Hebron University HospitalBarcelonaSpain

Section editors and affiliations

  • N. Bargalló
    • 1
  1. 1.Magnetic Resonance Image Core Facility. Institut de Investigació Biomèdica August Pi I Sunyer (IDIBAPS)Image Diagnosis Center (CDIC). Hospital Clínic de BarcelonaBarcelonaSpain

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