The early detection of status epilepticus is a key factor to reduce mortality and long-term consequences. Overall, computed tomography (CT) is the most relevant tool to define the etiologic diagnosis in the acute situation. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) increases the specificity, with diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and T2-weighted imaging, showing signal alterations in certain cerebral areas, suggestive of status epilepticus (hippocampus, thalamus, cortical regions, and cerebellum). The use of perfusion techniques with either CT or MR may lead to identification of focal hyperperfusion regions matching the epileptogenic sources during the status epilepticus. Finally, in the long-term follow-up, MR can show the potential consequences of the status epilepticus, like mesial temporal sclerosis or focal cortical atrophy.
KeywordsEpilepsy Status epilepticus Imaging Neuroradiology Seizures Perfusion Diffusion Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) Computed tomography (CT)
Apparent diffusion coefficient
Central nervous system
Febrile infection-related epilepsy syndrome
Magnetic resonance imaging
New-onset refractory status epilepticus
Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome