Atopic Dermatitis

  • Neeti BhardwajEmail author
Living reference work entry


Atopic dermatitis (AD) or eczema is a common chronic relapsing skin disease that is often associated with other atopic conditions like allergic rhinitis and asthma. It is a major problem in developing as well as developed countries, with a pronounced increase in prevalence in recent decades. It is often the first clinical manifestation of atopy and the start of atopic march (Spergel, Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 105:99–106, 2010). The hallmark is epidermal barrier dysfunction leading to dry skin and IgE-mediated sensitization to food and environmental allergens. The pathogenesis of AD involves complex interrelationships among genetic, immunologic, environmental, and environmental factors. Recent insights into the genetic and immunologic mechanisms that drive cutaneous inflammation in AD have improved our understanding of its natural history with development of novel immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory agents. Early and proactive management may improve the outcome and overall quality of life for these patients.


Atopic dermatitis Atopic march Filaggrin Topical corticosteroids Topical calcineurin inhibitors 



Atopic dermatitis


Antimicrobial peptides


Chemokine ligand 17


Cutaneous lymphocyte associated




Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor


House dust mite


Interferon gamma










Langerhans cell


Phosphodiesterase 4


Scoring atopic dermatitis


Thymus- and activation-regulated cytokine


Topical calcineurin inhibitor


Toll-like receptors


Thymic stromal lymphopoietin


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Allergy and ImmunologyThe Pennsylvania State University Milton S. Hershey Medical CenterHersheyUSA

Section editors and affiliations

  • Tim Craig
    • 1
  • Massoud Mahmoudi
    • 2
  1. 1.Penn State UniversityHersheyUSA
  2. 2.Department of MedicineUniversity of CaliforniaSan FranciscoUSA

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