Pharmacologic Therapy for Rhinitis and Allergic Eye Disease
Allergic rhinitis and allergic eye disease affect the lives of many worldwide. They are Type I IgE-mediated hypersensitivity reactions. Allergic rhinitis occurs after sensitization of the mucosal lining of the nasal cavity to allergens. Likewise, allergic conjunctivitis occurs after sensitization of the ocular epithelium to allergens. Avoidance of allergens is the key in prevention of sensitization and the ensuing allergic responses. Various pharmacologic agents are developed to target the different underlying allergic mechanisms that cause the many symptoms of allergic rhinitis and allergic eye disease: antihistamines, mast cell stabilizers, anticholinergics, decongestants/vasoconstrictors, corticosteroids, multimodal anti-allergic agents, NSAIDs, and immunomodulators. Oral, intranasal, and topical formulations are available for certain agents. Complementary and alternative form of therapy can provide additional symptomatic relief. Furthermore, at the forefront of research for the treatment and management of allergic diseases including allergic rhinitis and allergic eye disease, allergen-specific immunotherapy with subcutaneous or sublingual immunotherapy can offer potential treatment and cure.
KeywordsAllergic rhinitis Allergic conjunctivitis Rhinitis Conjunctivitis Antihistamines Intranasal corticosteroids
- Ellis AK, Zhu Y, Steacy LM, Walker T, Day JH. A four-way, double-blind, randomized, placebo controlled study to determine the efficacy and speed of azelastine nasal spray, versus loratadine, and cetirizine in adult subjects with allergen-induced seasonal allergic rhinitis. Allergy Asthma Clin Immunol. 2013;9(1):16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Friedlaender MH, Howes J. A double-masked, placebo-controlled evaluation of the efficacy and safety of loteprednol etabonate in the treatment of giant papillary conjunctivitis. The Loteprednol Etabonate Giant Papillary Conjunctivitis Study Group I. Am J Ophthalmol. 1997;123(4):455–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Stokes M, Amorosi SL, Thompson D, Dupclay L, Garcia J, Georges G. Evaluation of patients’ preferences for triamcinolone acetonide aqueous, fluticasone propionate, and mometasone furoate nasal sprays in patients with allergic rhinitis. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2004;131(3):225–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar