Engineered Nanomaterials in the Environment, their Potential Fate and Behaviour and Emerging Techniques to Measure Them
After decades of research, nanoscience faces a historic moment: moving from fundamental research toward a publicly available technology, a turning point toward commercialization. Despite all perceived nanotechnology advantages, if their environmental impacts are not assessed in detail, this technology could adversely affect the environmental sustainability and health. Growing interests in manufacturing novel nanostructures and commercializing them is happening while there are major gaps in our understanding of their behavior in the environment. In this chapter, five of the most important nanomaterials, graphene, carbon nanotubes (CNTs), zinc oxides, titanium dioxide, and silver nanoparticles, have been briefly described. In addition, diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) technique as an emerging method with the possibility of determining the readily available concentrations of metal oxide nanomaterials in soil and water has been mentioned.
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