Decentralized Integrated Approach of Water and Wastewater Management in Rural West Bengal
The issue of water availability and wastewater management is a common scenario all over the world. Delay in summer and soaring temperatures have massively reduced the existing stock of water resources in the past few decades. Drying up of small surface water sources like pond, lakes, etc., decline in groundwater table, deterioration of water quality, and poor wastewater management are some of the current problems encountered in both urban and rural areas in India. West Bengal, particularly Murshidabad, Nadia, North 24 Parganas districts, etc., are highly affected by arsenic rather than other mineral’s presence. Apposite management strategies and safety planning play a crucial part to combat these problems to some extent. This study highlights the role of catchment area management ensuring safety of potential source of drinking water and also quantifies wastewater generated from households, and finally a sustainable eco-friendly technological solution is to be developed at project site. The sources of water flowing into the pond are mainly rainfall, rainfall-mediated agricultural runoff generated during monsoon season as a result of heavy rainfall, and some domestic wastewater generated from individual households. The gray water is treated using reed bed filter through a horizontal flow system. A silt trap designed with the help of input parameters is placed at the suitable location to arrest sediment loads particularly in rainy season while transporting surface runoff in the defined catchment. Water and wastewater quality has been analyzed by using different instruments prescribed by APHA guideline. The raw water is treated by aeration, horizontal roughing filter, slow sand filter, activated carbon filter, and post chlorination with optimum dosages. In addition also wastewater could be treated using an eco-friendly technique like reed bed filter. This type of integrated water and wastewater treatment system if established may provide an alternative source of drinking water where sufficient pond systems exist under deteriorated groundwater quality condition, and also treated wastewater may be used for irrigation and other purposes with zero discharge at the end of the day.
KeywordsHorizontal roughing filter Slow sand filter Activated carbon filter Silt trap Reed bed filter
The authors are very grateful to the Department of Science and Technology, Government of India, for EU-INDIA collaborative project under FP7 framework for sponsoring the research project awarded to School of Water Resources Engineering, Jadvpur University, Kolkata. Help and assistance for the implementation overall project during analysis of water testing and field visit from the team of School of Water Resources Engineering, Jadavpur University, India, and Adelphi Research, Berlin, Germany, is also acknowledged.
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