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Micro-remediation of Metals: A New Frontier in Bioremediation

  • A. Banerjee
  • M. K. Jhariya
  • D. K. Yadav
  • A. Raj
Living reference work entry

Abstract

Microbial remediation is an innovative technique which aims toward decontamination of polluted sites through metal immobilization. This approach would make lesser availability of heavy metals to living system. It was found that precipitation and transformation through metabolic activity of microbes are very much useful in this context. Such process reduces the hazards of metal pollution. Use of living organisms for decontamination of pollutions has got holistic approach including various microbes, algae, fungi, higher plant process known as bioremediation. From microbes perspectives, various processes such as promoting indigenous microbial population for decontamination, exogenous input of microbes for decontamination purpose, utilization of microbial strain for sequestering pollutants as well as metal immobilization through microbial biomass are available. Metals have diverse source of contamination by anthropogenic mode. Metal biotransformation is the principle mechanism of microbial remediation for decontaminating environment. It involves processes such as cell membrane transport, physical adsorption, and ion exchange complexation and biosorption. Diverse microbial groups such as plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria or PGPR actively participate in metal decontamination process. Metal-microbe interaction for heavy metal removal includes processes such as bioleaching, bioaccumulations biotransformation, biomineralization, and biosorption. Metal resistance of microbes involves expolymer binding, siderophore and biosurfactant complexation, metal precipitation, and metal-dependent mechanism of metal resistance. Biotransformation of metal cations involves bacterial cell-mediated biologically catalyzed immobilization and solubilization process by diverse group of microbial community.

Keywords

Bioremediation Interaction Micro-remediation Metal Microbes 

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. Banerjee
    • 1
  • M. K. Jhariya
    • 2
  • D. K. Yadav
    • 2
  • A. Raj
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Environmental ScienceSarguja UniversityAmbikapurIndia
  2. 2.Department of Farm ForestrySarguja UniversityAmbikapurIndia
  3. 3.Department of Forestry, College of AgricultureI.G.K.VRaipurIndia

Section editors and affiliations

  • Chaudhery Mustansar Hussain
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Chemistry and Environmental SciencesNew Jersey Institute of TechnologyNewarkUSA

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