Gender Identity Minorities and Workplace Legislation in Europe

  • Katerina SidiropoulouEmail author
Living reference work entry


It is a fact that trans people experience severe discrimination in various forms not only in their everyday lives but also in their professional lives, especially when transitioning from male to female and vice versa. It seems that Europe is slowly changing over the years as there are constant calls to tackle this complex issue by considering the inclusion of a third gender option, the abolition of any abusive practices, recommendations for legal redress in cases of violation, and a more transparent and self-determined legal recognition procedure. There are national laws which offer protection on the basis of gender identity at national and international levels; this is the case when a person’s internal sense of their gender differs from their sex assigned at birth. Nevertheless, there is still a lack of uniformity due to a number of unresolved matters such as uncertainty about who is covered, whether gender identity should be covered as a protected ground, what is required to gain a legal change of name and gender marker in official documents, who is responsible for authorization and uncertainty over the stages, nature and duration of the actual procedure. Fewer distressed trans employees and transphobic incidents are observed when there is greater social acceptability, organizational effort, and national intervention. Research and collective actions by movements, political leaders, academics, medical experts, and nongovernmental organizations are further required to minimize societal and employment exclusions of trans people.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Anglia Ruskin University, School of ManagementCambridgeUK

Section editors and affiliations

  • Nick Drydakis
    • 1
  1. 1.Economics and International Business, Lord Ashcroft International Business School, Centre for Pluralist EconomicsAnglia Ruskin UniversityCambridgeUK

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