Advertisement

Personality, Emotional Intelligence, and Rationality

  • Brice CorgnetEmail author
  • Simon Gaechter
  • Roberto Hernán González
Living reference work entry
  • 22 Downloads

Abstract

Even though economic models have typically put forth human capital, measured by standard intelligence tests, as the main driver of economic success, new developments in personality psychology and neuroscience have allowed economists to consider a wider variety of individual predictors. This chapter starts by briefly reviewing the literature on intelligence and work performance and discussing the added value of personality traits such as conscientiousness and grit to explain a person’s career achievements. Recent developments in cognitive psychology and neuroscience are then described as an inspiration for the study of new dimensions of human capital such as reflective skills and emotional intelligence. Even though each of these variables independently captures necessary ingredients for explaining economic success, complementarity effects exist. In particular, possessing high reflective skills along with acute emotional intelligence could grant a decisive comparative advantage. This is especially so because these skills are mostly uncorrelated, thus making it rather unique to possess both. Nevertheless, there are examples in which possessing very high levels of these skills might actually be detrimental to the individual and the organization. This suggests our understanding of the individual determinants of economic success might still be incomplete.

Notes

Acknowledgments

Brice Corgnet performed this research within the framework of the LABEX CORTEX (ANR-11-LABX-0042) of Université de Lyon, within the program Investissements d’Avenir (ANR-11-IDEX-007) operated by the French National Research Agency (ANR).

References

  1. Ackerman P (2009) Personality and intelligence. In: Cambridge handbook of personality psychology. Cambridge University Press, New York, pp 162–174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alan S, Ertac S (2018) Fostering patience in the classroom: results from randomized educational intervention. J Polit Econ 126(5):1865–1911CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Alan S, Boneva T, Ertac S (2019) Ever failed, try again, succeed better: results from a randomized educational intervention on grit. Q J Econ 134(3):1121–1162Google Scholar
  4. Almlund M, Duckworth AL, Heckman J, Kautz T (2011) Personality psychology and economics. In: Handbook of the economics of education, vol 4. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 1–181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Antonakis J, D'adda G, Weber R, Zehnder C (2015) Just words? Just speeches?– On the economic effects of charismatic leadership. HEC Lausanne, SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar
  6. Arbak E, Villeval MC (2013) Voluntary leadership: motivation and influence. Soc Choice Welf 40:635–662CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Ashton MC, Lee K, Son C (2000) Honesty as the sixth factor of personality: correlations with Machiavellianism, primary psychopathy, and social adroitness. Eur J Personal 14(4):359–368CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Ashton MC, Lee K, Perugini M, Szarota P, De Vries RE, Di Blas L, … De Raad B (2004) A six-factor structure of personality-descriptive adjectives: solutions from psycholexical studies in seven languages. J Pers Soc Psychol 86(2):356CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Autor D, Levy F, Murnane R (2003) The skill content of recent technological change: an empirical exploration. Q J Econ 118(4):1279–1333CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Baron-Cohen S, Jolliffe T, Mortimore C, Robertson M (1997) Another advanced test of theory of mind: Evidence from very high functioning adults with autism or Asperger syndrome. Journal of Child psychology and Psychiatry, 38(7):813–822CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Barrick M, Mount MK (1991) The big 5 personality dimensions and job-performance: a meta-analysis. Pers Psychol 44:1–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Barrick M, Mount MK (2000) Select on conscientiousness and emotional stability. In: Locke EA (ed) Handbook of principles of organizational behavior United Kingdom. Wiley, Chichester, p 15, 28Google Scholar
  13. Barrick M, Mount MK (2009) Chapter 2, Select on conscientiousness and emotional stability. In: Handbook of principles of organizational behavior: indispensable knowledge for evidence-based management. Wiley, Chichester, pp 19–40Google Scholar
  14. Barrick M, Mount MK, Judge TA (2001) Personality and performance at the beginning of the new millennium: what do we know and where do we go next? Int J Sel Assess 9:9–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bartling B, Fehr E, Maréchal MA, Schunk D (2009) Egalitarianism and competitiveness. Am Econ Rev 99(2):93–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bass BM, Stogdill RM (1990) Bass & Stogdill’s handbook of leadership: theory, research, and managerial applications. Simon and Schuster. Free Press; New York, USA, Subsequent edition (July 23, 1990)Google Scholar
  17. Becker TE (1998) Integrity in organizations: beyond honesty and conscientiousness. Acad Manag Rev 23(1):154–161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Becker GS, Stigler GJ (1974) Law enforcement, malfeasance, and compensation of enforcers. J Leg Stud 3(1):1–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Behling O (1998) Employee selection: will intelligence and conscientiousness do the job? Acad Manag Exec 12(1):77–85Google Scholar
  20. Berg J, Dickhaut J, McCabe K (1995) Trust, reciprocity, and social history. Games Econ Behav 10(1):122–142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Bergen SE, Gardner CO, Kendler KS (2007) Age-related changes in heritability of behavioral phenotypes over adolescence and young adulthood: a meta-analysis. Twin Res Hum Genet 10(3):423–433CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Blalock DV, Young KC, Kleiman EM (2015) Stability amidst turmoil: grit buffers the effects of negative life events on suicidal ideation. Psychiatry Res 228(3):781–784CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Borghans L, Duckworth AL, Heckman JJ, Ter Weel B (2008) The economics and psychology of personality traits. J Hum Resour 43(4):972–1059Google Scholar
  24. Borghans L, Heckman JJ, Golsteyn BH, Meijers H (2009) Gender differences in risk aversion and ambiguity aversion. J Eur Econ Assoc 7(2–3):649–658CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Brañas-Garza P, Garcia-Munoz T, Hernán-González R (2012) Cognitive effort in the beauty contest game. J Econ Behav Organ 83(2):254–260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Briley DA, Tucker-Drob EM (2014) Genetic and environmental continuity in personality development: a meta-analysis. Psychol Bull 140(5):1303CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Bruttel L, Fischbacher U (2013) Taking the initiative. What characterizes leaders? Eur Econ Rev 64:147–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Brynjolfsson E, McAfee A (2011) Race against the machine: how the digital revolution is accelerating innovation, driving productivity, and irreversibly transforming employment and the economy. Digital Frontier Press, LexingtonGoogle Scholar
  29. Burks SV, Carpenter JP, Goette L, Rustichini A (2009) Cognitive skills affect economic preferences, strategic behavior, and job attachment. Proc Natl Acad Sci 106(19):7745–7750CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Cacioppo JT, Petty RE (1982) The need for cognition. J Pers Soc Psychol 42(1):116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Caliendo M, Cobb-Clark DA, Uhlendorff A (2015) Locus of control and job search strategies. Rev Econ Stat 97(1):88–103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Camerer CF, Hogarth RM (1999) The effects of financial incentives in experiments: a review and capital-labor-production framework. J Risk Uncertain 19(1–3):7–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Campitelli G, Gerrans P (2014) Does the cognitive reflection test measure cognitive reflection? A mathematical modeling approach. Mem Cogn 42(3):434–447CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Cawley J, Heckman J, Vytlacil E (2001) Three observations on wages and measured cognitive ability. Labour Econ 8(4):419–442CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Colquitt JA, Scott BA, LePine JA (2007) Trust, trustworthiness, and trust propensity: a meta-analytic test of their unique relationships with risk taking and job performance. J Appl Psychol 92(4):909CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Corgnet B, Hernán-González R (2018) Revisiting the trade-off between risk and incentives: the shocking effect of random shocks? Manag Sci 65(3):1096–1114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Corgnet B, Espín AM, Hernán-González R (2015a) The cognitive basis of social behavior: cognitive reflection overrides antisocial but not always prosocial motives. Front Behav Neurosci 9:287CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Corgnet B, Hernán-González R, Mateo R (2015b) Cognitive reflection and the diligent worker: an experimental study of millennials. PLoS One 10(11):e0141243CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Corgnet B, Espín AM, Hernán-González R (2016a) Creativity and cognitive skills among Millennials: thinking too much and creating too little. Front Psychol 7:1626CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Corgnet B, Espín AM, Hernán-González R, Kujal P, Rassenti S (2016b) To trust, or not to trust: cognitive reflection in trust games. J Behav Exp Econ 64:20–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Corgnet B, Desantis M, Porter D (2018) What makes a good trader? On the role of intuition and reflection on trader performance. J Financ 73(3):1113–1137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Corgnet B, Martin L, Ndodjang P, Sutan A (2019) On the merit of equal pay: performance manipulation and incentive setting. Eur Econ Rev 113:23–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Coricelli G, Nagel R (2009) Neural correlates of depth of strategic reasoning in medial prefrontal cortex. Proc Natl Acad Sci 106(23):9163–9168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Costa PT, Mccrae RR (1992) Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) and NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) professional manual. Psychological Assessment Resources, OdessaGoogle Scholar
  45. Costa PT, Mccrae RR, Dye DA (1991) Facet scales for agreeableness and conscientiousness: a revision of the neo personality-inventory. Personal Individ Differ 12:887–898CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Côté S, Miners CT (2006) Emotional intelligence, cognitive intelligence, and job performance. Adm Sci Q 51(1):1–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Côté S, Lopes PN, Salovey P, Miners CT (2010) Emotional intelligence and leadership emergence in small groups. Leadersh Q 21(3):496–508CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Cowell JM, Samek A, List J, Decety J (2015) The curious relation between theory of mind and sharing in preschool age children. PLoS One 10(2):e0117947CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Cunha F, Heckman JJ, Lochner L, Masterov DV (2006) Interpreting the evidence on life cycle skill formation. In: Handbook of the economics of education, vol 1. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 697–812Google Scholar
  50. Daly M, Egan M, O'Reilly F (2015) Childhood general cognitive ability predicts leadership role occupancy across life: evidence from 17,000 cohort study participants. Leadersh Q 26(3):323–341CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. De Martino B, O’Doherty JP, Ray D, Bossaerts P, Camerer C (2013) In the mind of the market: theory of mind biases value computation during financial bubbles. Neuron 79(6):1222–1231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. DeYoung CG (2011) Intelligence and personality. In: Sternberg RJ, Kaufman SB (eds) Cambridge handbooks in psychology. The Cambridge handbook of intelligence. Cambridge University Press, New York, pp 711–737CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Diamond A (2013) Executive functions. Annu Rev Psychol 64:135–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Digman JM (1990) Personality structure: emergence of the 5-factor model. Annu Rev Psychol 41:417–440CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Dilchert S, Ones DS, Davis RD, Rostow CD (2007) Cognitive ability predicts objectively measured counterproductive work behaviors. J Appl Psychol 92(3):616–627CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Dohmen T, Falk A (2011) Performance pay and multidimensional sorting: productivity, preferences, and gender. Am Econ Rev 101(2):556–590CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Dohmen T, Falk A, Huffman D, Sunde U (2008) Representative trust and reciprocity: prevalence and determinants. Econ Inq 46(1):84–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Dohmen T, Falk A, Huffman D, Sunde U (2018) On the relationship between cognitive ability and risk preference. J Econ Perspect 32(2):115–134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Dorrough A, Glöckner A, Lee B (2017) Race for power in public good games with unequal, unstable punishment power. J Behav Decis Mak 30(2):582–609CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Duckworth AL (2016) Grit: the power of passion and perseverance. HarperCollins, TorontoGoogle Scholar
  61. Duckworth AL, Peterson C, Matthews MD, Kelly DR (2007) Grit: perseverance and passion for long-term goals. J Pers Soc Psychol 92(6):1087CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Duckworth AL, Kirby TA, Tsukayama E, Berstein H, Ericsson KA (2011) Deliberate practice spells success: why grittier competitors triumph at the National Spelling Bee. Soc Psychol Personal Sci 2(2):174–181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Dur R, Sol J (2010) Social interaction, co-worker altruism, and incentives. Games Econ Behav 69(2):293–301CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Duyme M, Dumaret AC, Tomkiewicz S (1999) How can we boost IQs of “dull children”?: A late adoption study. Proc Natl Acad Sci 96(15):8790–8794CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Eskreis-Winkler L, Duckworth AL, Shulman EP, Beal S (2014) The grit effect: predicting retention in the military, the workplace, school and marriage. Front Psychol 5:36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Falk A, Becker A, Dohmen T, Enke B, Huffmann D, Sunde U (2018) Global evidence on economic preferences. Q J Econ 133(4):1645–1692CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Farrington CA, Roderick M, Allensworth E, Nagaoka J, Keyes TS, Johnson DW, Beechum NO (2012) Teaching adolescents to become learners: the role of noncognitive factors in shaping school performance – a critical literature review. Consortium on Chicago School Research, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  68. Frederick S (2005) Cognitive reflection and decision making. J Econ Perspect 19(4):25–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Frey C, Osborne M (2017) The future of employment: how susceptible are jobs to computerisation? Technol Forecast Soc Chang 114:254–280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Frith CD, Frith U (1999) Interacting minds – a biological basis. Science 286(5445):1692–1695CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Fryer Jr RG, Levitt SD, List JA (2015) Parental incentives and early childhood achievement: a field experiment in Chicago heights (No. w21477). NBER, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United StatesGoogle Scholar
  72. Furnham A (1996) The big five versus the big four: the relationship between the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) and NEO-PI five factor model of personality. Personal Individ Differ 21(2):303–307CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Gill D, Prowse V (2016) Cognitive ability, character skills, and learning to play equilibrium: a level-k analysis. J Polit Econ 124(6):1619–1676CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Goldberg LR (1990) An alternative “description of personality”: the big-five factor structure. J Pers Soc Psychol 59(6):1216–1229CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Gosling SD, Rentfrow PJ, Swann WB (2003) A very brief measure of the big-five personality domains. J Res Pers 37(6):504–528CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Gottfried AE, Gottfried AW, Reichard RJ, Guerin DW, Oliver PH, Riggio RE (2011) Motivational roots of leadership: a longitudinal study from childhood through adulthood. Leadersh Q 22(3):510–519CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Guerin DW, Oliver PH, Gottfried AW, Gottfried AE, Reichard RJ, Riggio RE (2011) Childhood and adolescent antecedents of social skills and leadership potential in adulthood: temperamental approach/withdrawal and extraversion. Leadersh Q 22(3):482–494CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Guerrero LR, Dudovitz R, Chung PJ, Dosanjh KK, Wong MD (2016) Grit: a potential protective factor against substance use and other risk behaviors among Latino adolescents. Acad Pediatr 16(3):275–281CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Hardy CL, Van Vugt M (2006) Nice guys finish first: the competitive altruism hypothesis. Personal Soc Psychol Bull 32(10):1402–1413CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Heckman JJ, Rubinstein Y (2001) The importance of noncognitive skills: lessons from the GED testing program. Am Econ Rev 91(2):145–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Heckman JJ, Stixrud J, Urzua S (2006) The effects of cognitive and noncognitive abilities on labor market outcomes and social behavior. J Labor Econ 24(3):411–482CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Heckman J, Pinto R, Savelyev P (2013) Understanding the mechanisms through which an influential early childhood program boosted adult outcomes. Am Econ Rev 103(6):2052–2086CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Heckman JJ, Humphries JE, Kautz T (eds) (2014) The myth of achievement tests: the GED and the role of character in American life. University of Chicago Press, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  84. Hefti A, Heinke S, Schneider F (2016) Mental capabilities, trading styles, and asset market bubbles: theory and experiment. Working paper. University of Zurich, SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar
  85. Helson R, Kwan VS, John OP, Jones C (2002) The growing evidence for personality change in adulthood: findings from research with personality inventories. J Res Pers 36(4):287–306CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Holmström B (1979) Moral hazard and observability. Bell J Econ 10(1):74–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Horn JL (1970) Organization of data on life-span development of human abilities. In: Life-span developmental psychology. Academic Press, New York, pp 423–466CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Hough LM, Dunnette MD, Mccloy RA, Eaton NK, Kamp JD (1990) Criterion-related validities of personality constructs and the effect of response distortion on those validities. J Appl Psychol 75:581–595CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Huang M, Rust R, Maksimovic V (2019) The feeling economy: managing in the next generation of artificial intelligence (AI). Calif Manag Rev 61(4):43–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Hur Y, Van Den Berg PT, Wilderom CP (2011) Transformational leadership as a mediator between emotional intelligence and team outcomes. Leadersh Q 22(4):591–603CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Hurtz GM, Donovan JJ (2000) Personality and job performance: the Big Five revisited. J Appl Psychol 85(6):869CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. John OP (1989) Chapter 19, Towards a taxonomy of personality descriptors. In: Personality psychology. Springer, New York, pp 261–271CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. John OP, Srivastava S (2001) The big-five trait taxonomy: history, measurement, and theoretical perspectives. In: John OP, Robins RW, Pervin LA (eds) Handbook of personality: theory and research, vol 2. Guilford Press, New York, pp 102–138Google Scholar
  94. Judge TA, Bono JE, Ilies R, Gerhardt MW (2002) Personality and leadership: a qualitative and quantitative review. J Appl Psychol 87(4):765CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Kautz T, Heckman JJ, Diris R, Ter Weel B, Borghans L (2014) Fostering and measuring skills: improving cognitive and non-cognitive skills to promote lifetime success. Organization of Economic Co-operation and Development, Paris. http://www.oecd.org/edu/ceri/Fostering-and-Measuring-Skills-Improving-Cognitive-and-NonCognitive-Skills-to-Promote-Lifetime-Success.pdfCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Kirkpatrick SA, Locke EA (1991) Leadership: do traits matter? Acad Manag Perspect 5(2):48–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Kleiman EM, Adams LM, Kashdan TB, Riskind JH (2013) Gratitude and grit indirectly reduce risk of suicidal ideations by enhancing meaning in life: evidence for a mediated moderation model. J Res Pers 47(5):539–546CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Laffont J, Martimort D (2001) The theory of incentives: the principal-agent model. Princeton University Press, PrincetonGoogle Scholar
  99. Lee K, Ashton MC (2004) Psychometric properties of the HEXACO personality inventory. Multivar Behav Res 39(2):329–358CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Levine SS, Bernard M, Nagel R (2017) Strategic intelligence: the cognitive capability to anticipate competitor behavior. Strateg Manag J 38(12):2390–2423CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Li W-D, Arvey RD, Song Z (2011) The influence of general mental ability, self-esteem and family socioeconomic status on leadership role occupancy and leader advancement: the moderating role of gender. Leadersh Q 22(3):520–534CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Lodi-Smith J, Roberts BW (2007) Social investment and personality: a meta-analysis of the relationship of personality traits to investment in work, family, religion, and volunteerism. Personal Soc Psychol Rev 11(1):68–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Mackintosh NJ (2011) History of theories and measurement of intelligence. In: The Cambridge handbook of intelligence. Cambridge University Press, New York, pp 3–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Mann RD (1959) A review of the relationships between personality and performance in small groups. Psychol Bull 56(4):241–270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Mayer JD, Salovey P (1997) What is emotional intelligence? In: Salovey P, Sluyter DJ (eds) Emotional development and emotional intelligence. Basic Books, New York, pp 3–31Google Scholar
  106. McCrae RR, Costa PT Jr (1990) Personality in adulthood. Guilford Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  107. McCrae RR, Costa PT Jr (1994) The stability of personality: observations and evaluations. Curr Dir Psychol Sci 3(6):173–175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. McGee A, McGee P (2016) Search, effort, and locus of control. J Econ Behav Organ 126:89–101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. McGue M, Bacon S, Lykken DT (1993a) Personality stability and change in early adulthood: a behavioral genetic analysis. Dev Psychol 29(1):96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. McGue M, Bouchard TJ Jr, Iacono WG, Lykken DT (1993b) Behavioral genetics of cognitive ability: a life-span perspective. In: Plomin R, McClearn GE (eds) Nature, nurture, and psychology. American Psychological Association, Washington, DC, pp 59–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Mischel W, Shoda Y, Rodriguez M (1989) Delay of gratification in children. Science 244(4907):933–938CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Mount MK, Barrick MR, Stewart GL (1998) Five-factor model of personality and performance in jobs involving interpersonal interactions. Hum Perform 11:145–165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Mount MK, Barrick MR, Strauss JP (1999) The joint relationship of conscientiousness and ability with performance: test of the interaction hypothesis. J Manag 25:707–721Google Scholar
  114. Mumford MD, Zaccaro SJ, Harding FD, Jacobs TO, Fleishman EA (2000) Leadership skills for a changing world: solving complex social problems. Leadersh Q 11(1):11–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Mumford TV, Campion MA, Morgeson FP (2007) The leadership skills strataplex: leadership skill requirements across organizational levels. Leadersh Q 18(2):154–166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Niederle M, Vesterlund L (2007) Do women shy away from competition? Do men compete too much? Q J Econ 3:1067–1101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Ones DS, Viswesvaran C, Schmidt FL (1993) Comprehensive meta-analysis of integrity test validities: findings and implications for personnel selection and theories of job performance. J Appl Psychol 78(4):679CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Ones DS, Dilchert S, Viswesvaran C, Judge TA (2007) In support of personality assessment in organizational settings. Pers Psychol 60:995–1027CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Ones DS, Viswesvaran C, Schmidt FL (2012) Integrity tests predict counterproductive work behaviors and job performance well: comment on Van Iddekinge, Roth, Raymark, and Odle-Dusseau (2012). J Appl Psychol 97(3):537–542CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Piatek R, Pinger P (2010) Maintaining (locus of) control: assessing the impact of locus of control on education decisions and wages. In: SOEP papers on multidisciplinary panel data research 338, DIW Berlin, The German Socio-Economic PanelGoogle Scholar
  121. Pink DH (2006) A whole new mind: why right-brainers will rule the future. Penguin, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  122. Plomin R, Deary IJ (2015) Genetics and intelligence differences: five special findings. Mol Psychiatry 20(1):98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Plomin R, DeFries JC, Knopik VS, Neiderhiser JM (2016) Top 10 replicated findings from behavioral genetics. Perspect Psychol Sci 11(1):3–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Ponti G, Rodriguez-Lara I (2015) Social preferences and cognitive reflection: evidence from a dictator game experiment. Front Behav Neurosci 9:146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Proto E, Rustichini A, Sofianos A (2019) Intelligence, personality, and gains from cooperation in repeated interactions. J Polit Econ 127(3):1351–1390CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Reed J, Pritschet BL, Cutton DM (2013) Grit, conscientiousness, and the transtheoretical model of change for exercise behavior. J Health Psychol 18(5):612–619CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Reichard RJ, Riggio RE, Guerin DW, Oliver PH, Gottfried AW, Gottfried AE (2011) A longitudinal analysis of relationships between adolescent personality and intelligence with adult leader emergence and transformational leadership. Leadersh Q 22(3):471–481CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Roberts BW, Mroczek D (2008) Personality trait change in adulthood. Curr Dir Psychol Sci 17(1):31–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Roberts BW, Walton KE, Viechtbauer W (2006) Patterns of mean-level change in personality traits across the life course: a meta-analysis of longitudinal studies. Psychol Bull 132(1):1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Rotter JB (1966) Generalized expectancies for internal versus external control of reinforcement. Psychol Monogr 80(1):1–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Salgado JF (1997) The five factor model of personality and job performance in the European Community. J Appl Psychol 82:30–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Salles A, Cohen GL, Mueller CM (2014) The relationship between grit and resident well-being. Am J Surg 207(2):251–254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Schaie KW (1994) The course of adult intellectual development. Am Psychol 49(4):304CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Schaie KW (2005) Developmental influences on adult intelligence: the Seattle longitudinal study. Oxford University Press, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Schaie KW, Willis SL, Hertzog C, Schulenberg JE (1987) Effects of cognitive training on primary mental ability structure. Psychol Aging 2(3):233–242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Schmidt FL (2009) Select on intelligence. In: Locke EA (ed) Handbook of principles of organizational behavior. Wiley, UK, pp 3–18Google Scholar
  137. Schmidt FL, Hunter JE (1998) The validity and utility of selection methods in personnel psychology: practical and theoretical implications of 85 years of research findings. Psychol Bull 124:262–274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Siegling AB, Nielsen C, Petrides KV (2014) Trait emotional intelligence and leadership in a European multinational company. Personal Individ Differ 65:65–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Silvia PJ (2015) Intelligence and creativity are pretty similar after all. Educ Psychol Rev 27(4):599–606CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Sloof R, Van Praag CM (2010) The effect of noise in a performance measure on work motivation: a real effort laboratory experiment. Labour Econ 17(5):751–765CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Srivastava S, John OP, Gosling SD, Potter J (2003) Development of personality in early and middle adulthood: set like plaster or persistent change? J Pers Soc Psychol 84(5):1041CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Stanovich KE (2009) What intelligence tests miss: the psychology of rational thought. Yale University Press, New HavenGoogle Scholar
  143. Stanovich KE, West RF, Toplak ME (2016) The rationality quotient: toward a test of rational thinking. MIT Press, Cambridge, MACrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Suzuki Y, Tamesue D, Asahi K, Ishikawa Y (2015) Grit and work engagement: a cross-sectional study. PLoS One 10(9):e0137501CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Sy T, Tram S, O’Hara LA (2006) Relation of employee and manager emotional intelligence to job satisfaction and performance. J Vocat Behav 68(3):461–473CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Tett RP, Jackson DN, Rothstein M (1991) Personality measures as predictors of job-performance – a meta-analytic review. Pers Psychol 44:703–742CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Tversky A, Kahneman D (1974) Judgment under uncertainty: heuristics and biases. Science 185(4157):1124–1131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Van Vugt M (2006) Evolutionary origins of leadership and followership. Personal Soc Psychol Rev 10(4):354–371CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Volk S, Thöni C, Ruigrok W (2011) Personality, personal values and cooperation preferences in public goods games: a longitudinal study. Personal Individ Differ 50(6):810–815CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Volk S, Thöni C, Ruigrok W (2012) Temporal stability and psychological foundations of cooperation preferences. J Econ Behav Organ 81(2):664–676CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Willis SL, Schaie KW (1986a) Practical intelligence in later adulthood. In: Steinberg RJ, Wagner RK (eds) Practical intelligence: origins of competence in the everyday world. Cambridge University Press, New York, pp 236–268Google Scholar
  152. Willis SL, Schaie KW (1986b) Training the elderly on the ability factors of spatial orientation and inductive reasoning. Psychol Aging 1:239–247CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Willis SL, Schaie KW (1988) Gender differences in spatial ability in old age: longitudinal and intervention findings. Sex Roles 18:189–203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Witt LA (2002) The interactive effects of extraversion and conscientiousness on performance. J Manag 28:835–851Google Scholar
  155. Witt LA, Burke LA, Barrick MR, Mount MK (2002) The interactive effects of conscientiousness and agreeableness on job performance. J Appl Psychol 87:164–169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Yukl G, Van Fleet DD (1992) Theory and research on leadership in organizations. Consulting Psychologists Press, Palo Alto, Califnornia (USA)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Brice Corgnet
    • 1
    Email author
  • Simon Gaechter
    • 2
  • Roberto Hernán González
    • 3
  1. 1.EM Lyon Business SchoolGATE L-SE UMR 5824, 23 avenue Guy de Collongue CS 40203Ecully cedexFrance
  2. 2.University ParkNottinghamUK
  3. 3.Burgundy School of BusinessUniversité Bourgogne Franche-ComtéDijonFrance

Section editors and affiliations

  • Marie Claire Villeval
    • 1
  1. 1.GATECNRS – University of LyonEcullyFrance

Personalised recommendations