Blast effects are injuries or symptoms resulting from a shock wave or blast caused by high-order or low-order explosives such as dynamite, bombs, or C-4 (CDC 2016). Effects resulting from blasts may vary from auditory problems to brain injury and are classified as primary, secondary, tertiary, or quaternary (CDC 2016). Primary blast effects are unique to high-order explosives and may include injuries such as concussion, eye rupture, or abdominal hemorrhage (CDC 2016). Secondary and tertiary effects may result from bomb fragments, flying debris, or blast wind with any body part being affected. Last, quaternary effects include explosion-related injuries, illness, or disease, such as burns, close or open brain injury, and breathing problems due to toxic fumes, dust, or smoke from a blast.
References and Readings
- Center for Disease Control Injury Prevention (2016). Explosions and blast injuries: A primer for clinicians. Retrieved from: https://www.cdc.gov/masstrauma/preparedness/primer.pdf
- Lash, M. (2017). Understanding the effects of concussion, blast, and brain injuries: A guide for families, veterans, and caregivers. Brainline Military. Retrieved from: http://www.brainlinemilitary.org/content/2008/11/understanding-effects-concussion-blast-and-brain-injuries-guide-families-veterans-and-caregi_pageall.html