Encyclopedia of Clinical Neuropsychology

2018 Edition
| Editors: Jeffrey S. Kreutzer, John DeLuca, Bruce Caplan

Post-deployment Syndrome

  • Nicholas David SmithEmail author
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-57111-9_9228

Post-deployment Syndrome (PDS)

Post-deployment syndrome is a collection of symptoms that are consistent in nature and impact day-to-day functioning for a minimum of three months (Cifu 2010). Persons typically have at least two of the following: mild traumatic brain injury or concussion, post-traumatic stress disorder, major depression, chronic pain, generalized anxiety disorder, cognitive complaints, sleep disturbance, fatigue, and sensory abnormalities (Cifu 2010; Cifu and Blake 2011). It is estimated that 16% of OIF/OEF veterans experience symptoms (Walker et al. 2010). Onset is primarily attributed to combat exposure and proximity to violent blasts. Elements of PDS were previously referred to as “shell shock” and “postconcussional syndrome” during World Wars I and II (Walker et al. 2010). Increased attention to the syndrome has resulted in part due to the prolonged nature of the current US military conflicts.


  1. Cifu, D. (2010). Personnel with post-concussion syndrome. Psychiatry Research, 246, 321–325. What is post-deployment syndrome. https://www.brainline.org/video/what-post-deployment-syndrome. Published 11/12/2010. Accessed July 31, 2017.
  2. Cifu, D. X., & Blake, C. (2011). Post-deployment syndrome: The illness of war. In Overcoming post-deployment syndrome: A six-step mission to health. New York: Demos Medical Publishing.Google Scholar
  3. Walker, R. L., Clark, M. E., & Sanders, S. H. (2010). The “Postdeployment multi-symptom disorder”: An emerging syndrome in need of a new treatment paradigm. Psychological Services, 7(3), 136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Educational and Psychological StudiesUniversity of South Florida/TBI Model Systems, James A. Haley VA HospitalTampaUSA