The DSM-5 defines a personality disorder (PD) as “an enduring pattern of inner experience and behavior that deviates markedly from the expectations of the individual’s culture, is pervasive and inflexible, has an onset in adolescence or early adult, is stable over time, and leads to distress or impairment” (p. 645, APA 2013) and is not attributable to another mental disorder, medical condition, or the physiologic effects of a substance. The ten PDs are clustered by core symptoms. Cluster A is marked by odd or eccentric behavior and includes schizoid, schizotypal, and paranoid PD. Cluster B is characterized by overly emotional, erratic, or dramatic presentation and includes antisocial, borderline, histrionic, and narcissistic PD. Cluster C is distinguished by fearful, anxious symptoms and includes avoidant, dependent, and obsessive-compulsive PD. Persons with PD are at increased risk for suicidality, depression, and substance abuse.
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