Encyclopedia of Clinical Neuropsychology

2018 Edition
| Editors: Jeffrey S. Kreutzer, John DeLuca, Bruce Caplan

Borderline Personality Disorder

  • Cynthia RolstonEmail author
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-57111-9_9202


Emotional intensity disorder


Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is characterized in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association 2013) by pervasive instability in relationships, affect, and self-image, present in adulthood and across contexts. Criteria include frantic avoidance of real or imagined abandonment; impulsivity; self-harm, including self-injury and suicidal behavior; marked emotional reactivity with intense, disproportionate anger; persistent feelings of emptiness; and transient paranoid ideation or dissociation.


BPD is classified with the cluster B personality disorders in DSM-5.

Current Knowledge


Rates of BPD are estimated at 1–5.9% in the community, with 75% female. Treatment settings have higher rates: about 6% in primary care, 10% in outpatient mental health clinics, and 20% in inpatient psychiatric programs. Increased risk for BPD is found in first-degree relatives,...

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PM&RVirginia Commonwealth University-Medical College of VirginiaRichmondUSA