Encyclopedia of Clinical Neuropsychology

2018 Edition
| Editors: Jeffrey S. Kreutzer, John DeLuca, Bruce Caplan

Gender Dysphoria

  • Kristin M. GrahamEmail author
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-57111-9_9193


Gender identity disorder; Transgender; Transsexual


Gender dysphoria is a psychological condition that occurs when an individual’s gender identity and assigned or natal sex are incongruent. Gender dysphoria is marked by significant affective and cognitive distress as a result of the incongruence. The discrepancy between gender and sex and the resultant distress are hallmarks of this condition. Previously referred to as gender identity disorder, gender dysphoria focuses on dysphoria as the presenting clinical issues, as opposed to identity.

Current Knowledge

Development and Course

Prevalence ranges are both higher and wider for natal adult males (0.005–0.014%), as compared to natal adult females (0.002–0.003%). Gender dysphoria may manifest throughout the lifespan; however, clinical presentation differs between age groups. Diagnostic criteria are available for children, and adolescents and adults. Diagnostic criteria for children are usually more concrete, behavioral...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References and Readings

  1. American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-5®). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Blanchard, R., & Freund, K. (1983). Is the distant relationship of fathers and homosexual sons related to the sons’ erotic preference for male partners, or to the sons’ atypical gender identity, or to both? Journal of Homosexuality, 9(1), 7–25.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. Butcher, J. N., Graham, J. R., Ben-Porath, Y. S., Tellegen, A., & Dahlstrom, W. G. (2001). Minnesota multiphasic personality inventory–2 (MMPI-2): Manual for administration and scoring (Rev. ed.). Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  4. Deogracias, J., Johnson, L., Meyer-Bahlburg, H., Kessler, S., Schober, J., & Zucker, K. (2007). The gender identity/gender dysphoria questionnaire for adolescents and adults. Journal of Sex Research, 44(4), 370–379.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. Freund, K., Langevin, R., Satterberg, J., & Steiner, B. (1977). Extension of the gender identity scale for males. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 6(6), 507–519.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. Hopwood, P., Fletcher, I., Lee, A., & Al Ghazal, S. (2001). A body image scale for use with cancer patients. European Journal of Cancer, 37(2), 189–197.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. Reed, G. M., Drescher, J., Krueger, R. B., Atalla, E., Cochran, S. D., First, M. B., Cohen-Kettenis, P. T., Arango-de Montis, I., Parish, S. J., Cottler, S., Briken, P., & Saxena, S. (2016). Disorders related to sexuality and gender identity in the ICD-11: Revising the ICD-10 classification based on current scientific evidence, best clinical practices, and human rights considerations. World Psychiatry, 15(3), 205–221.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Vrouenraets, L. J. J. J., Fredriks, A. M., Hannema, S. E., Cohen-Kettenis, P. T., & de Vries, M. C. (2015). Early medical treatment of children and adolescents with gender dysphoria: An empirical ethical study. Journal of Adolescent Health, 57(4), 367–373.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. Wylie, K., Barrett, J., Besser, M., Bouman, W. P., Bridgman, M., Clayton, A., ... Khoosal, D. (2014). Good practice guidelines for the assessment and treatment of adults with gender dysphoria. Sexual and Relationship Therapy, 29(2), 154–214.Google Scholar
  10. Zucker, K. J., Lawrence, A. A., & Kreukels, B. P. (2016). Gender dysphoria in adults. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 12, 217–247.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Physical Medicine and RehabilitationVirginia Commonwealth UniversityRichmondUSA