Dysfunctional voiding; Urinary incontinence; Wetting
Clinical disorder characterized by failure to control bladder function, with repeated episodes of inappropriate (intentional or involuntary) voiding of urine beyond the chronologic and developmental point that consistent control would be expected. The behavior is not attributable to medication effect, substance use, or general medical condition. An enuretic disorder is classified as primary when control of urination has never been successfully achieved. Secondary enuresis is the term used when incontinence recurs after a sustained period of effective bladder control (minimum of 6 months). Enuresis is also further clarified as nocturnal (nighttime or monosymptomatic enuresis) or diurnal (daytime), or mixed (both).
Enuresis is classified with the Elimination Disorders in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association 2013). Significant...
References and Readings
- Levato, L. E., Aponte, C. A., Wilkins, J., Travis, R., Aiello, R., Zanibbi, K., Loring, W. A., Butter, E., Smith, T., & Mruzek, D. W. (2016). Use of urine alarms in toilet training children with intellectual and developmental disabilities: A review. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 53, 232–241. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ridd.2016.02.007.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Sá, C. A., Gusmão Paiva, A. C., de Menezes, Maria Clotilde Lima Bezerra, de Oliveira, L. F., Gomes, C. A., de Figueiredo, A. A., . . . Netto, J. M. B. (2016). Increased risk of physical punishment among enuretic children with family history of enuresis. The Journal of Urology, 195(4, Part 2), 1227–1231. https://doi.org/proxy.library.vcu.edu/10.1016/j.juro.2015.11.022PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar