Encyclopedia of Clinical Neuropsychology

2018 Edition
| Editors: Jeffrey S. Kreutzer, John DeLuca, Bruce Caplan

Body Dysmorphic Disorder

  • Amma A. AgyemangEmail author
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-57111-9_9178




Previously known a dysmorphia, body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is an obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)-related condition characterized by a preoccupation with one or more perceived defects or flaws in one’s physical appearance that are not observable or appear slight to others. The disorder is manifested through repetitive behaviors such as excessive grooming, skin picking, or mental acts such as comparing one’s appearance to others, in efforts to assuage appearance concerns. Muscle dysmorphia is a subtype of BDD, in which there is a preoccupation with one’s body build being too small or insufficiently muscular.


The disorder is classified with the obsessive-compulsive and related disorders in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association 2013).

Current Knowledge


National prevalence rates of BDD range from 1.7% to 2.4%, with higher rates in outpatient (1–8-6.7%) and...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References and Readings

  1. American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-5 ®). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Enander, J., Andersson, E., Mataix-Cols, D., Lichtenstein, L., Alström, K., Andersson, G., ... & Rück, C. (2016). Therapist guided internet based cognitive behavioural therapy for body dysmorphic disorder: Single blind randomised controlled trial. BMJ, 352, i241.Google Scholar
  3. Fang, A., Matheny, N. L., & Wilhelm, S. (2014). Body dysmorphic disorder. Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 37(3), 287–300.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. Harrison, A., de la Cruz, L. F., Enander, J., Radua, J., & Mataix-Cols, D. (2016). Cognitive-behavioral therapy for body dysmorphic disorder: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Clinical Psychology Review, 48, 43–51.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. Phillips, K. A., & Hollander, E. (2008). Treating body dysmorphic disorder with medication: Evidence, misconceptions, and a suggested approach. Body Image, 5(1), 13–27.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Phillips, K. A., Pinto, A., Menard, W., Eisen, J. L., Mancebo, M., & Rasmussen, S. A. (2007). Obsessive–compulsive disorder versus body dysmorphic disorder: A comparison study of two possibly related disorders. Depression and Anxiety, 24(6), 399–409.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Phillips, K. A., Keshaviah, A., Dougherty, D. D., Stout, R. L., Menard, W., & Wilhelm, S. (2016). Pharmacotherapy relapse prevention in body dysmorphic disorder: A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. American Journal of Psychiatry, 173(9), 887–895.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Physical Medicine and RehabilitationVirginia Commonwealth University Medical CenterRichmondUSA