Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder
Premenstrual syndrome (PMS)
Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) is defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association 2013) as a depressive disorder typified by marked mood changes (i.e., anxiety, depression, irritability, affective lability) as well as behavioral and physical symptoms (i.e., anhedonia, difficulty concentrating, lethargy, dyssomnia), which occur immediately prior to menses, improve during menses, and become minimal or absent immediately after menses. It is critical that PMDD is differentiated from the exacerbation of other mental disorders around the time of menses. For example, PMDD has a short and cyclical course compared to the chronicity observed in major depressive disorder. Although PMDD and PMS are often used interchangeably, they are different; the latter is considered less severe and does not require the presence of affective symptoms.
PMDD is classified...
References and Readings
- Martinez, P. E., Rubinow, D. R., Nieman, L. K., Koziol, D. E., Morrow, A. L., Schiller, C. E., ... & Schmidt, P. J. (2016). 5α-reductase inhibition prevents the luteal phase increase in plasma allopregnanolone levels and mitigates symptoms in women with premenstrual dysphoric disorder. Neuropsychopharmacology, 41(4), 1093–1102.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar