Encyclopedia of Clinical Neuropsychology

2018 Edition
| Editors: Jeffrey S. Kreutzer, John DeLuca, Bruce Caplan

Inclusive Education

  • Gertina J. van SchalkwykEmail author
  • Rik Carl D’Amato
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-57111-9_9149


Inclusive education is an all-embracing term referring to a philosophy, process, practice, and organizational structure aimed to enhance the educational and social development of all students. Individuals with disabilities and special education needs – i.e., children with physical, mental, and developmental disabilities – are provided with opportunities to learn alongside nondisabled peers in mainstream educational contexts (Danforth and Naraian 2015; Peters 2010). Inclusivity therefore is a societal ideology and an approach to teaching that recognizes diversity and the meaningful participation of students with special needs in the general educational process (Morningstar et al. 2015; Sailor 2015). It enables all students to access resources and to fully participate in learning activities and to create optimal learning results for all students.

See Also

Further Reading

  1. Cosier, M., Causton-Theoharis, J., & Theoharis, G. (2013). Does access matter? Time in general education and achievement for students with disabilities. Remedial and Special Education, 34(6), 323–332.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Danforth, S., & Naraian, S. (2015). This new field of inclusive education: Beginning a dialogue on conceptual foundations. Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 53(1), 70–85.  https://doi.org/10.1352/1934-9556-53.1.70.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Hoppey, D., & McLeskey, J. (2010). A case study of principal leadership in an effective inclusive school. The Journal of Special Education, 46, 245–256.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0022466910390507.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Kleinert, H., Towles-Reeves, E., Quenemoen, R., Thurlow, M., Fluegge, L., Weseman, L., & Kerbel, A. (2015). Where students with the most significant cognitive disabilities are taught: Implications for general curriculum access. Exceptional Children, 81, 312–328.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0014402914563697.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Morningstar, M. E., Shogren, K., Lee, H., & Born, K. (2015). Preliminary lessons about supporting participation and learning in inclusive classrooms. Research and Practice for Persons with Severe Disabilities, 40, 192–210.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1540796915594158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Peters, S. (2010). Inclusive education in accelerated and professional development schools: A case-based study of two school reform efforts in the USA. International Journal of Inclusive Education, 6(4), 287–308.  https://doi.org/10.1080/13603110210143716.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Sailor, W. (2015). Advances in schoolwide inclusive school reform. Remedial and Special Education, 36, 94–99.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0741932514555021.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gertina J. van Schalkwyk
    • 1
    Email author
  • Rik Carl D’Amato
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of MacauTaipaChina
  2. 2.School Psychology, Clinical Neuropsychology, Clinical PsychologyThe Chicago School of Professional PsychologyChicagoUSA