Encyclopedia of Clinical Neuropsychology

2018 Edition
| Editors: Jeffrey S. Kreutzer, John DeLuca, Bruce Caplan

Visual Convergence

  • Gabrielle HromasEmail author
  • Adam J. Woods
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-57111-9_9107

Visual convergence is the process by which the eyes rotate inward toward the nose in order to align the fovea to enable focusing on a close object. Vergence eye movements are the only disconjugate (meaning that the eyes move in different directions) movements in the visual system. Convergence allows for perception of objects at varying distances and can be voluntary or reflexive. The brain is able to judge distance based upon the angle of convergence allowing for depth perception (Gregory 1990). Convergence is usually measured by instructing a patient to keep a target in focus while it moves toward their nose. The test ends when diplopia (or double vision) occurs and the near point of convergence (NPC) is measured (Miller and Newman 1999). Convergence is a skill that develops in the third month of infancy and shows deterioration (seen in the slowing of velocity and the onset of movement of convergence resulting in diplopia or double vision) with age (Leigh and Zee 1999). Common...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. Acheson, J., & Riordan-Eva, P. (1999). Fundamentals of clinical opthamology: Neuro-opthamology. London: BMJ Publishing Group.Google Scholar
  2. Coubard, O. A. (2013). Saccade and vergence eye movements: A review of motor and premotor commands. European Journal of Neuroscience, 38, 3384–3397.  https://doi.org/10.1111/enj.12356.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. Gamlin, P. D. R. (2002). Neural mechanisms for the control of vergence eye movements. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 956, 264–272.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. Gregory, R. L. (1990). Eye and brain: The psychology of seeing. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  5. Leigh, J. R., & Zee, D. S. (1999). The nerology of eye movements. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  6. Miller, N. R., & Newman, N. J. (1999). Clinical neuro-opthamology: The essentials. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, A Waverly Company.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Clinical and Health PsychologyUniversity of FloridaGainesvilleUSA
  2. 2.Department of Clinical and Health Psychology, College of Public Health and Health ProfessionsUniversity of FloridaGainesvilleUSA
  3. 3.Center for Cognitive Aging and Memory, McKnight Brain InstituteUniversity of FloridaGainesvilleUSA
  4. 4.Department of NeuroscienceUniversity of FloridaGainesvilleUSA