Encyclopedia of Clinical Neuropsychology

2018 Edition
| Editors: Jeffrey S. Kreutzer, John DeLuca, Bruce Caplan

Tests of Variables of Attention

  • Deirdre M. O’SheaEmail author
  • Adam J. Woods
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-57111-9_9092

TOVA

Attention deficit disorder (ADHD) is prevalent in the general population (Polanczyk et al. 2014). Estimates range from approximately 5.29% in children (Polanczyk et al. 2007), 7.1% in adolescents (Willcutt 2012), and 7.1% in adults (Fayyad et al. 2007). The disorder is characterized by inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity (APA 2013). Distinguishing between ADHD and other externalizing problems such as Conduct Disorder or Oppositional Defiant Disorder is the primary objective of the clinician. However, there is considerable overlap between these disorders, which highlight the importance of measures that can be reliable to distinguish between them.

Developed by Dr. Laurence Greenberg and colleagues in the 1960s, the Tests of Variables of Attention (TOVA) are objective and standardized, computerized continuous performance tests (CPTs) that are now widely used to inform the diagnosis of ADHD/ADD (Forbes 1998). Specifically, these CPTs consist of the TOVA®, which assess the...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-5®). Arlington: American Psychiatric Pub.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Fayyad, J., De Graaf, R., Kessler, R., Alonso, J., Angermeyer, M., Demyttenaere, K., …, & Lara, C. (2007). Cross-national prevalence and correlates of adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. British Journal of Psychiatry, 190(5), 402–409.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Forbes, G. B. (1998). Clinical utility of the test of variables of attention (TOVA) in the diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 54(4), 461–476.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Greenberg, L. (1991). TOVA interpretation manual. Minneapolis: Author.Google Scholar
  5. Greenberg, L. M. (2007). TOVA clinical manual: Test of variables of attention continuous performance test (visual only). Los Alamitos: TOVA Company.Google Scholar
  6. Greenberg, L. M., & Waldmant, I. D. (1993). Developmental normative data on the Test of Variables of Attention (TOVA™). Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 34(6), 1019–1030.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Polanczyk, G., de Lima, M. S., Horta, B. L., Biederman, J., & Rohde, L. A. (2007). The worldwide prevalence of ADHD: A systematic review and metaregression analysis. American Journal of Psychiatry, 164, 942–948.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Polanczyk, G. V., Willcutt, E. G., Salum, G. A., Kieling, C., & Rohde, L. A. (2014). ADHD prevalence estimates across three decades: An updated systematic review and meta-regression analysis. International Journal of Epidemiology, 43(2), 434–442.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Willcutt, E. G. (2012). The prevalence of DSM-IV attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A meta-analytic review. Neurotherapeutics, 9(3), 490–499.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Clinical and Health PsychologyCenter for Cognitive Aging and Memory, University of FloridaGainesvilleUSA
  2. 2.Department of Clinical and Health Psychology, College of Public Health and Health ProfessionsUniversity of FloridaGainesvilleUSA
  3. 3.Center for Cognitive Aging and Memory, McKnight Brain InstituteUniversity of FloridaGainesvilleUSA
  4. 4.Department of NeuroscienceUniversity of FloridaGainesvilleUSA