Encyclopedia of Clinical Neuropsychology

2018 Edition
| Editors: Jeffrey S. Kreutzer, John DeLuca, Bruce Caplan

Diffusion Kurtosis Mapping

  • Matilde IngleseEmail author
  • Maria Petracca
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-57111-9_9079


Diffusion kurtosis imaging; Diffusion kurtosis mapping; Diffusion tensor imaging; Diffusion weighted imaging; DKI; DKM; DTI; DWI; Fibre bundle orientation; Gaussian; Ischemia; Water diffusion; White matter hyperintensities; White matter tracts; WMH


In biological tissues, the presence of barriers (e.g., cell membranes) alters the water diffusion so that the actual diffusion diverges from the theoretical Gaussian distribution expected in a homogeneous system (i.e., a glass of water). Diffusional kurtosis imaging (DKI) is a diffusion-weighted MRI method which measures both Gaussian and non-Gaussian properties of water diffusion (Jensen et al. 2005). As such, it allows the characterization of diffuse microscopic injury in both anisotropic and isotropic systems (i.e., white matter tracts and grey matter) (Raz et al. 2013; Fieremans et al. 2011). In comparison with other diffusion imaging techniques, DKI shows a higher accuracy in the estimation of fiber bundle...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References and Readings

  1. Benitez, A., Fieremans, E., Jensen, J. H., Falangola, M. F., Tabesh, A., Ferris, S. H., et al. (2013). White matter tract integrity metrics reflect the vulnerability of late-myelinating tracts in Alzheimer’s disease. Neuroimage Clinical, 4, 64–71.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nicl.2013.11.001.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. Bester, M., Jensen, J. H., Babb, J. S., Tabesh, A., Miles, L., Herbert, J., et al. (2015). Non-Gaussian diffusion MRI of gray matter is associated with cognitive impairment in multiple sclerosis. Multiple Sclerosis Journal, 21(7), 935–944.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1352458514556295.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. Bonilha, L., Lee, C. Y., Jensen, J. H., Tabesh, A., Spampinato, M. V., Edwards, J. C., et al. (2015). Altered microstructure in temporal lobe epilepsy: A diffusional kurtosis imaging study. American Journal of Neuroradiology, 36(4), 719–724.  https://doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A4185.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. Chen, Y., Ren, W., Zheng, D., Zhong, J., Liu, X., Yue, Q., et al. (2015). Diffusion kurtosis imaging predicts neoadjuvant chemotherapy responses within 4 days in advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients. Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging, 42(5), 1354–1361.  https://doi.org/10.1002/jmri.24910.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. Doring, T. M., Lopes, F. C., Kubo, T. T., Tukamoto, G., Kimura, M. C., Strecker, R. M., et al. (2014). Neuromyelitis optica: A diffusional kurtosis imaging study. American Journal of Neuroradiology, 35(12), 2287–2292.  https://doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A4050.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. Fieremans, E., Jensen, J. H., & Helpern, J. A. (2011). White matter characterization with diffusional kurtosis imaging. NeuroImage, 58(1), 177–188.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2011.06.006.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. Glenn, G. R., Kuo, L. W., Chao, Y. P., Lee, C. Y., Helpern, J. A., & Jensen, J. H. (2016). Mapping the orientation of white matter fiber bundles: A comparative study of diffusion tensor imaging, diffusional kurtosis imaging, and diffusion spectrum imaging. American Journal of Neuroradiology, 37(7), 1216–1222.  https://doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A4714.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. Grossman, E. J., Ge, Y., Jensen, J. H., Babb, J. S., Miles, L., Reaume, J., et al. (2012). Thalamus and cognitive impairment in mild traumatic brain injury: A diffusional kurtosis imaging study. Journal of Neurotrauma, 29(13), 2318–2327.  https://doi.org/10.1089/neu.2011.1763.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. Jensen, J. H., Helpern, J. A., Ramani, A., Lu, H., & Kaczynski, K. (2005). Diffusional kurtosis imaging: The quantification of non-gaussian water diffusion by means of magnetic resonance imaging. Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, 53(6), 1432–1440.  https://doi.org/10.1002/mrm.20508.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. Kamagata, K., Tomiyama, H., Hatano, T., Motoi, Y., Abe, O., Shimoji, K., et al. (2014). A preliminary diffusional kurtosis imaging study of Parkinson disease: Comparison with conventional diffusion tensor imaging. Neuroradiology, 56(3), 251–258.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00234-014-1327-1.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. Kamiya, K., Kamagata, K., Miyajima, M., Nakajima, M., Hori, M., Tsuruta, K., et al. (2016). Diffusional kurtosis imaging in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus: Correlation with severity of cognitive impairment. Magnetic Resonance in Medical Sciences, 15(3), 316–323.  https://doi.org/10.2463/mrms.mp.2015-0093.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. Kazumata, K., Tha, K. K., Narita, H., Ito, Y. M., Shichinohe, H., Ito, M., et al. (2016). Characteristics of diffusional kurtosis in chronic ischemia of adult Moyamoya disease: Comparing diffusional kurtosis and diffusion tensor imaging. American Journal of Neuroradiology, 37(8), 1432–1439.  https://doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A4728.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. Pang, H., Ren, Y., Dang, X., Feng, X., Yao, Z., Wu, J., et al. (2015). Diffusional kurtosis imaging for differentiating between high-grade glioma and primary central nervous system lymphoma. Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging, 44(1), 30–40.  https://doi.org/10.1002/jmri.25090.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. Raz, E., Bester, M., Sigmund, E. E., Tabesh, A., Babb, J. S., Jaggi, H., et al. (2013). A better characterization of spinal cord damage in multiple sclerosis: A diffusional kurtosis imaging study. American Journal of Neuroradiology, 34(9), 1846–1852.  https://doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A3512.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. Zhao, L., Wang, Y., Jia, Y., Zhong, S., Sun, Y., Zhou, Z., et al. (2016). Cerebellar microstructural abnormalities in bipolar depression and unipolar depression: A diffusion kurtosis and perfusion imaging study. Journal of Affective Disorders, 195, 21–31.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2016.01.042.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of NeurologyRadiology and Neuroscience, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount SinaiNew YorkUSA
  2. 2.Department of NeurologyIcahn School of Medicine at Mount SinaiNew YorkUSA