Encyclopedia of Clinical Neuropsychology

2018 Edition
| Editors: Jeffrey S. Kreutzer, John DeLuca, Bruce Caplan

Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

  • Jacqueline L. CunninghamEmail author
  • Carol L. Armstrong
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-57111-9_85




Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a form of cancer of the white blood cells (leukocytes). ALL is the most common type of childhood leukemia and is distinguished from chronic lymphoblastic leukemia (CLL) and acute myeloid (or myelogenous) leukemia, which are more prevalent in adults.

Current Knowledge


ALL is characterized by the rapid proliferation of immature blood cells (lymphoblasts), which crowd out mature, functional cells. It is associated with the enlargement of lymphoid tissue in areas including the lymph nodes, spleen, bone marrow, and lungs and with increased lymphocytic cells circulating in blood and in various tissues and organs. Persons afflicted will experience weakness and fatigue, anemia, unexplained fever and infections, weight loss, or loss of appetite.


Cancer, including ALL, is caused by damage to DNA.


The earlier the ALL is detected, the more effective is its treatment. The goal is to induce a lasting...

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References and Readings

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jacqueline L. Cunningham
    • 1
    Email author
  • Carol L. Armstrong
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyChildren’s Hospital of PhiladelphiaPhiladelphiaUSA
  2. 2.Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Behavioral SciencesThe Children’s Hospital of PhiladelphiaPhiladelphiaUSA