Encyclopedia of Clinical Neuropsychology

2018 Edition
| Editors: Jeffrey S. Kreutzer, John DeLuca, Bruce Caplan

Association Areas

  • Maryellen RomeroEmail author
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-57111-9_707


Association cortex


It is recognized that the brain is neither holistic nor rigidly localized with respect to cognitive functions. However, higher-order cognitive capabilities depend on specialized regions within the brain that process, link or integrate elementary or new, as well as stored, information into increasingly complex wholes. Such regions are termed association areas and are thought to be the neuroanatomical substrate for such higher functions as memory, emotion, perception, language, spatial and problem-solving skills, as well as the planning and execution of behavioral responses.

Three major association areas are recognized:
  1. 1.

    Frontal association cortices, as the name implies, are located in the more anterior aspects of the frontal lobes and include dorsolateral, orbitofrontal, and premotor areas. While various feedback loops are likely involved including those from the posterior and limbic association areas, conceptually, the initial decisions and...

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References and Readings

  1. Kupermann, I. (1991). Localization of higher cognitive and affective functions: The association cortices. In E. R. Kandel, J. H. Schwartz, & T. M. Jessel (Eds.), Principles of neural science (3rd ed., pp. 823–838). East Norwalk: Appleton & Lange.Google Scholar
  2. Mendoza, J. E., & Foundas, A. F. (2008). Clinical neuroanatomy: A behavioral approach. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  3. Mesulam, M.-M. (2000). Principles of behavioral and cognitive neurology. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  4. Pandya, D. N., & Seltzer, B. (1982). Association areas of the cerebral cortex. Trends in Neurosciences, 5, 385–390.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Pandya, D. N., & Yeterian, E. H. (2003). Cerebral cortex: Architecture and connections. In Encyclopedia of the neurological sciences (pp. 594–604). Amsterdam: Elsevier Science.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral SciencesTulane University School of MedicineNew OrleansUSA