Encyclopedia of Clinical Neuropsychology

2018 Edition
| Editors: Jeffrey S. Kreutzer, John DeLuca, Bruce Caplan

Rancho Los Amigos Scale

  • John Whyte
  • Richard KunzEmail author
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-57111-9_67

Definition

The Rancho Los Amigos Scale (RLAS), aka the Rancho Los Amigos Levels of Cognitive Functioning Scale (LOCF), and often referred to simply as the “Rancho Scale,” is an ordinal scale of recovery of function following traumatic brain injury. It consists of eight levels: (1) no response (coma); (2) generalized response (vegetative state); (3) localized response; (4) confused-agitated; (5) confused, inappropriate, non-agitated; (6) confused-appropriate; (7) automatic-appropriate; and (8) purposeful-appropriate. Each level has a prose description of its characteristic features, which, particularly for the higher levels, is quite lengthy. Although the scale has demonstrated acceptable inter-rater and test-retest reliability, it has been criticized because of the lack of operational definitions for each level of the scale and the fact that, particularly in higher functioning individuals, it is common to show features characteristic of more than one scale level. In addition, it has...

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References and Readings

  1. Dowling, G. A. (1985). Levels of cognitive functioning: Evaluation of interrater reliability. Journal of Neurosurgical Nursing, 17(2), 129–134.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
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  3. Hagen, C., Malkmus, D., & Durham, P. (1972). Levels of cognitive functioning. Downey: Rancho Los Amigos Hospital.Google Scholar
  4. The Center for Outcome Measurement in Brain Injury. Introduction to the Level of Cognitive Functioning Scale. http://www.tbims.org/combi/lcfs/index.html. Accessed 29 June 2016
  5. Van Baalen, B., van Woensel, M. P. C., van Kessel, M. A., Roebroeck, M. E., & Stam, H. J. (2006). Reliability and sensitivity to change of measurement instruments used in a traumatic brain injury population. Clinical Rehabilitation, 20, 686–700.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Rehabilitation Research InstituteAlbert Einstein Healthcare NetworkElkins ParkUSA
  2. 2.Department of Physical Medicine and RehabilitationVirginia Commonwealth UniversityRichmondUSA