Encyclopedia of Clinical Neuropsychology

2018 Edition
| Editors: Jeffrey S. Kreutzer, John DeLuca, Bruce Caplan

Rancho Los Amigos Scale

  • John Whyte
  • Richard KunzEmail author
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-57111-9_67


The Rancho Los Amigos Scale (RLAS), aka the Rancho Los Amigos Levels of Cognitive Functioning Scale (LOCF), and often referred to simply as the “Rancho Scale,” is an ordinal scale of recovery of function following traumatic brain injury. It consists of eight levels: (1) no response (coma); (2) generalized response (vegetative state); (3) localized response; (4) confused-agitated; (5) confused, inappropriate, non-agitated; (6) confused-appropriate; (7) automatic-appropriate; and (8) purposeful-appropriate. Each level has a prose description of its characteristic features, which, particularly for the higher levels, is quite lengthy. Although the scale has demonstrated acceptable inter-rater and test-retest reliability, it has been criticized because of the lack of operational definitions for each level of the scale and the fact that, particularly in higher functioning individuals, it is common to show features characteristic of more than one scale level. In addition, it has...

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References and Readings

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Rehabilitation Research InstituteAlbert Einstein Healthcare NetworkElkins ParkUSA
  2. 2.Department of Physical Medicine and RehabilitationVirginia Commonwealth UniversityRichmondUSA