Encyclopedia of Clinical Neuropsychology

2018 Edition
| Editors: Jeffrey S. Kreutzer, John DeLuca, Bruce Caplan

Myasthenia Gravis

  • Jane AustinEmail author
  • Pierre A. Leon
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-57111-9_565

Synonyms

Autoimmune disorders

Short Description or Definition

Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an uncommon autoimmune disorder of the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) resulting in skeletal muscle weakness. Disruption of the postsynaptic receptors on the muscle membranes is caused by antibodies to the acetylcholine receptors (AChR), which prevent adequate amounts of acetylcholine from reaching the receptors and thus inhibiting muscle action potential. Abnormalities of thymus are common in MG patients and present as hyperplasia (70%) or thymomas (20%) (Kothari 2004; Romi et al. 2005). MG is characterized by a decrease in ocular, facial, respiratory, pharyngeal, and limb muscle strength that is exacerbated by repeated use of those muscles and generally improves with rest. Symptoms, however, can also fluctuate without apparent reason, and the disease may go into remission spontaneously in 10–20% of all MG patients lasting for years (Thomann and Pandya 1995).

Categorization and Presentation

Romi et...
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References and Readings

  1. Berrih-Aknin, S., & Le Panse, R. (2014). Myasthenia gravis: A comprehensive review of immune dysregulation and etiological mechanisms. Journal of Autoimmunity, 52, 90–100.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Bershad, E. M., Feen, E. S., & Suarez, J. I. (2008). Myasthenia gravis crisis. Southern Medical Journal, 101, 63–69.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Burns, T. M., Grouse, C. K., Wolfe, G. I., Conaway, M. R., & Sanders, D. B. (2011). The MG-QOL15 for following the health-related quality of life for patients with myasthenia gravis. Muscle & Nerve, 43, 14–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Conti-Fine, B. M., Milani, M., & Kaminski, H. J. (2006). Myasthenia gravis: Past, present, and future. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 116(11), 2843–2854.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. Fisher, J., Parkinson, K., & Kothari, M. J. (2003). Self-reported depressive symptoms in myasthenia gravis. Journal of Clinical Neuromuscular Disease, 4, 105–108.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Garcia-Carrasco, M., Escarcega, R. O., Fuentes-Alexandro, S., Riebeling, C., & Cervera, R. (2007). Therapeutic options in autoimmune myasthenia gravis. Autoimmunity Reviews, 6, 373–378.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Gilchrist, J. M. (1998). Myasthenia gravis. Medical Update for Psychiatrists, 3, 113–118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Grob, D., Arsura, E. L., Brunner, N. G., & Namba, T. (1987). The course of myasthenia gravis and therapies affecting outcome. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 505, 472–499.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Hampton, T. (2007). Novel therapies target myasthenia gravis. JAMA, 298(2), 163–164.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Hughes, T. (2005). The early history of myasthenia gravis. Neuromuscular Disorders, 15, 878–886.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Kothari, M. J. (2004). Myasthenia gravis. Journal of the American Osteopathic Association, 104, 377–384.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Mahadeva, B., Phillips II, L. H., & Juel, V. C. (2008). Autoimmune disorders of neuromuscular transmission. Seminars in Neurology, 28, 212–227.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Ochs, C. W., Bradley, R. J., Katholi, C. R., Byl, N. N., Brown, V. M., Jones, L. L., et al. (1998). Symptoms of patients with myasthenia gravis receiving treatment. Journal of Medicine, 29, 1–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Oosterhuis, H. J. G. H. (1997). Myasthenia gravis. Groningen: Groningen Neurological Press.Google Scholar
  15. Paul, R. H., Cohen, R. A., Gilchrist, J. M., Aloia, M. S., & Goldstein, J. M. (2000a). Cognitive dysfunctions in individuals with myasthenia gravis. Journal of the Neurological Sciences, 179, 59–64.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Paul, R. H., Cohen, R. A., Goldstein, J. M., & Gilchrist, J. M. (2000b). Fatigue and its impact on patients with myasthenia gravis. Muscle & Nerve, 23, 1402–1406.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Paul, R. H., Cohen, R. A., Zawacki, T., Gilchrist, J. M., & Aloia, M. S. (2001a). What we have learned about cognition in myasthenia gravis?: A review of methods and results. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 25, 75–81.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Paul, R. H., Nash, J. M., Cohen, R. A., Gilchrist, J. M., & Goldstein, J. M. (2001b). Quality of life and well-being of patients with myasthenia gravis. Muscle & Nerve, 24, 512–516.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Phillips II, L. H. (2003). The epidemiology of myasthenia gravis. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 998, 407–412.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Pourmand, R. (1997). Myasthenia gravis. Disease-a-Month, 43, 65–109.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Romi, F., Gilhus, N. E., & Aarli, J. A. (2005). Myasthenia gravis: Clinical, immunological, and therapeutic advances. Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, 111, 134–141.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Sanders, D. B., & Howard Jr., J. F. (2004). Disorders of neuromuscular transmission. In W. G. Bradley, R. B. Daroff, G. M. Fenichel, et al. (Eds.), Neurology in clinical practice, the neurological disorders (pp. 2441–2461). Philadelphia: Butterworth Heinemann.Google Scholar
  23. Seybold, M. E. (1983). Myasthenia gravis: A clinical and basic science review. Journal of the American Medical Association, 11, 2516–2521.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Sitek, E. J., Bilińska, M. M., Wieczorek, D., & Nyka, W. M. (2009). Neuropsychological assessment in myasthenia gravis. Neurological Sciences, 30(1), 9–14.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Stewart, S. B., Robertson, K. R., Johnson, K. M., & Howard Jr., J. F. (2007). The prevalence of depression in myasthenia gravis. Journal of Clinical Neuromuscular Disease, 8, 111–115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Thomann, K. H., & Pandya, S. (1995). Myasthenia gravis: Pathophysiology, diagnosis, differential diagnosis and management. Clinical Eye and Vision Care, 7, 3–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Ybarra, M. I., Kummer, A., Frota, E. R. C., Oliveira, J. T. D., Gomez, R. S., & Teixeira, A. L. (2011). Psychiatric disorders in myasthenia gravis. Arquivos de Neuro-Psiquiatria, 69(2A), 176–179.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychologyWilliam Paterson UniversityWayneUSA