Encyclopedia of Clinical Neuropsychology

2018 Edition
| Editors: Jeffrey S. Kreutzer, John DeLuca, Bruce Caplan


  • Bruce J. DiamondEmail author
  • Stephanie Magou
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-57111-9_564


Meningeal; Meningoencephalitis

Short Description or Definition

Meningitis is caused by microorganisms, either bacterial or viral, that invade the meninges, which comprise the three connective tissue membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord (e.g., dura mater, pia mater, and the arachnoid) (Guyton and Hall 2006; Webster’s New Explorer Medical Dictionary 2006). While viral meningitis does not generally cause significant brain damage, bacterial forms can be potentially life-threatening. Brain damage is mediated by several mechanisms including inflammation of the meninges, which can interfere with blood circulation or the flow of cerebral spinal fluid through subarachnoid space resulting in hydrocephalus (Carlson 2007).


The most common forms of meningitis include meningococcal (about 40% of cases), pneumococcal, and Haemophilus influenzae infections (see Table 1).
Meningitis, Table 1

This table provides information on categories of meningitis, disease...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References and Readings

  1. Aminoff, M. J., Greenberg, D. A., & Simon, R. P. (2005). Clinical neurology. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  2. Anderson, V. A., & Taylor, G. H. (2000). Meningitis. In K. O. Yeates, D. M. Ris, & G. H. Taylor (Eds.), Pediatric neuropsychology: Research, theory, and practice (pp. 117–148). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  3. Carlson, N. R. (2007). Foundations of physiological psychology (7th ed.). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.Google Scholar
  4. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2015). Pneumococcal meningitis. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/pneumococcal/clinicians/clinical-features.html
  5. Chusid, J. G., & McDonald, J. J. (1973). Correlative neuroanatomy and functional neurology. San Francisco: Lange Medical Publications.Google Scholar
  6. Dewey, D., & Tupper, D. E. (2004). Developmental motor disorders: A neuropsychological perspective. London: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  7. Guyton, A. C., & Hall, J. E. (2006). Textbook of medical physiology. Springfield: Elsevier Saunders.Google Scholar
  8. Kolb, B., & Wishaw, I. Q. (2008). Fundamentals of human neuropsychology. New York: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  9. Pinel, J. P. J. (2007). Basics of biopsychology. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.Google Scholar
  10. Rakel, R. E., Conn, H. F., & Bope, E. T. (2006). Conn’s current therapy. Amsterdam: Elsevier Saunders.Google Scholar
  11. Tunkel, A. R., Wispelwey, B., & Scheld, W. M. (1990). Bacterial meningitis: Recent advances in pathophysiology and treatment. Annals of Internal Medicine, 112, 610–623.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Webster’s new explorer medical dictionary (New Edition). (2006). Springfield: Merriam-Webster.Google Scholar
  13. Zeuter, A. M., & Zaiter, A. (2015). Infectious meningitis. Clinical Microbiology Newsletter, 43–51.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clinmicnews.2015.02.004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychologyWilliam Paterson UniversityWayneUSA