Encyclopedia of Clinical Neuropsychology

2018 Edition
| Editors: Jeffrey S. Kreutzer, John DeLuca, Bruce Caplan

Herniation Syndromes

  • Olga NoskinEmail author
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-57111-9_556

Frequently Used Terms

Subfalcian or cingulate herniation; Uncal herniation; Rostro-caudal or central herniation

Short Description or Definition

Because the intracranial compartments are generally noncompressible and the intracranial volume is essentially constant, any additional pressure-producing solid or liquid mass within the intracranial cavity will result in displacement of healthy tissues. Supra-tentorial expanding mass lesions, such as tumors, abscesses, ischemic or hemorrhagic strokes, or traumatic hematomas, can produce herniation by displacing adjacent and remote brain tissue, especially diencephalon. Such displacement may occur across the midline (e.g., sub-falcian herniation) or via the rostro-caudal direction by compressing the deep diencephalic and midbrain structures (e.g., uncal and central herniation).

Etiology/Categorization

Rostral-caudal/central herniation: a nonlateralizing downward pressure, most often associated with hydrocephalus, diffuse cerebral edema, and...

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References and Readings

  1. Mayer, S. A., et al. (1999). Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases, 8(3), 183–191.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
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  3. Sang-Beom Jeon Younsuck Koh et al. (2014). Critical care for patients with massive ischemic stroke J stroke, 16(3), 146–160.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Suarez, J. I. (Ed.). (2004). Critical care neurology and neurosurgery. Totowa: Humana.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Neurology Group of Bergen County, P.ARidgewoodUSA