Encyclopedia of Clinical Neuropsychology

2018 Edition
| Editors: Jeffrey S. Kreutzer, John DeLuca, Bruce Caplan

Binswanger’s Disease

  • Matthew Kraybill
  • Yana Suchy
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-57111-9_498


CADASIL; Multi-infarct dementia; Subcortical leukoencephalopathy; Subcortical vascular dementia


Binswanger’s disease (BD) is a type of subcortical vascular dementia caused by widespread, microscopic damage to cerebral white matter. The damage is usually the result of atherosclerosis (i.e., narrowing of arterial blood vessels) that reduces the supply of blood to subcortical areas of the brain, causing tissue to die. The characteristic pattern of BD-damaged brain tissue can be seen using brain imaging techniques such as computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). CT imaging of BD often reveals symmetric, noncontrasting hypodensities also called “leukoaraiosis,” and more sensitive MRI imaging reveals diffuse white matter lesions and scattered multiple lacunes (Akiguchi et al. 2014).

There is some controversy in the literature about whether BD constitutes a distinct clinical entity or simply describes the result of different neuropathologies that...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References and Readings

  1. Akiguchi, I., Budka, H., Shirakashi, Y., Woehrer, A., Watanabe, T., Shiino, A., Yamamoto, Y., Kawamoto, Y., Krampla, W., Jungwirth, S., & Fischer, P. (2014). MRI features of Binswanger’s disease predict prognosis and associated pathology. Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology, 1(10), 813–821.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Babikian, V., & Ropper, A. H. (1987). Binswanger’s disease: A review. Stroke, 18(1), 2–12.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. Caplan, L. R. (1995). Binswanger’s disease – Revisited. Neurology, 45(4), 626–633.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. Hachinski, V., Iadecola, C., Petersen, R. C., Breteler, M. M., Nyenhuis, D. L., Black, S. E., et al. (2006). National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke-Canadian Stroke Network vascular cognitive impairment harmonization standards. Stroke, 37(9), 2220–2241.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Huisa, B. N., & Rosenberg, G. A. (2014). Binswanger’s disease: Toward a diagnosis agreement and therapeutic approach. Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics, 14(10), 1203–1213.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Lezak, M. D., Howieson, D. B., & Loring, D. (2004). Neuropsychological assessment (4th ed.p. 1016). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  7. Olsen, C. G., & Clasen, M. E. (1998). Senile dementia of the Binswanger’s type. American Family Physician, 58(9), 2068–2074.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. Pantoni, L., & Garcia, J. H. (1995). The significance of cerebral white matter abnormalities 100 years after Binswanger’s report. A review. Stroke, 26(7), 1293–1301.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Roman, G. C. (2003). Neurological aspects of vascular dementia: Basic concepts, diagnosis, and management. In P. A. Lichtenberg, D. L. Murman, & A. M. Mellow (Eds.), Handbook of dementia – Psychological, neurological, and psychiatric perspectives (pp. 149–171). Hoboken: Wiley.Google Scholar
  10. Roman, G. C. (2005). Vascular dementia prevention: A risk factor analysis. Cerebrovascular Diseases, 20(Suppl. 2), 91–100.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. Rosenberg, G. A., Wallin, A., Wardlaw, J. M., Markus, H. S., Montaner, J., Wolfson, L., Costantino, I., Zlokovic, B. V., Joutel, A., Dichgans, M., Duering, M., Schmidt, R., Korczyn, A. D., Grinberg, L. T., & Hachinski, V. (2015). Consensus statement for diagnosis of subcortical small vessel disease. Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism, 36(1). 1–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Santamaria Ortiz, J., & Knight, P. V. (1994). Review: Binswanger’s disease, leukoaraiosis and dementia. Age and Ageing, 23(1), 75–81.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. Sink, K. M., Holden, K. F., & Yaffe, K. (2005). Pharmacological treatment of neuropsychiatric symptoms of dementia: A review of the evidence. JAMA, 293(5), 596–608.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Matthew Kraybill
    • 1
  • Yana Suchy
    • 2
  1. 1.NeuropsychologyCottage Rehabilitation HospitalSanta BarbaraUSA
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyThe University of UtahSalt Lake CityUSA