Encyclopedia of Clinical Neuropsychology

2018 Edition
| Editors: Jeffrey S. Kreutzer, John DeLuca, Bruce Caplan

Vascular Cognitive Impairment

  • Holly Rau
  • Rosemary Ziemnik
  • Yana Suchy
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-57111-9_496

Synonyms

Subcortical Ischemic Vascular Dementia (SIVD); Vascular cognitive disorder; Vascular cognitive impairment without dementia; Vascular dementia; Vascular disorders; Vascular mild cognitive impairment

Definition

The term vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) refers to the entire continuum of neurobehavioral deficits associated with different vascular pathologies. This continuum ranges from subtle deficits in at least one cognitive domain, such as executive functioning and processing speed, to clear deficits in several cognitive domains. Thus, VCI can be observed in patients who do not meet criteria for dementia, but screen positive for a history of vascular pathology, as well as in patients with vascular dementia. VCI can also be a comorbid condition in other mixed dementias, such as Alzheimer’s dementia (AD) with vascular components. More recently, VCI has been proposed as a means to identify and treat patients in earlier stages of cerebrovascular disease.

Historical Background

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References and Readings

  1. Bowler, J. V. (2007). Modern concept of vascular cognitive impairment: Review. British Medical Bulletin, 83, 291–305.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. de Haan, E. H., Nys, G. M., & van Zandvoort, M. J. (2006). Cognitive function following stroke and vascular cognitive impairment: Review. Current Opinion in Neurology, 19(6), 559–564.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. Gorelick, P. B., Scuteri, A., Black, S. E., DeCarli, C., Greenberg, S. M., Iadecola, C., … Seshadri, S. (2011). Vascular contributions to cognitive impairment and dementia. Stroke, 42(9), 2672.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Hachinski, V., Iadecola, C., Petersen, R. C., Breteler, M. M., Nyenhuis, D. L., Black, S. E., et al. (2006). National Institute of Neurological disorders and Stroke-Canadian Stroke Network vascular cognitive impairment harmonization standards. Stroke, 37(9), 2220–2241.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. Moorhouse, P., & Rockwood, K. (2008). Vascular cognitive impairment: Current concepts and clinical developments. The Lancet Neurology, 7(3), 246–255.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. Smith, G. E., & Bondi, M. W. (2013). Mild cognitive impairment and dementia. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Holly Rau
    • 1
  • Rosemary Ziemnik
    • 1
  • Yana Suchy
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyThe University of UtahSalt Lake CityUSA