De-efferented state; Locked-in state
Paralysis of all four limbs.
Paralysis of bilateral facial musculature.
Paralysis of oral and pharyngeal musculature.
Paralysis of horizontal eye movements.
Voluntary control of eyelids and vertical eye movements are usually preserved.
Consciousness is preserved.
Total: No voluntary control of limbs, tongue, pharynx, face, or eye movements, with preserved consciousness.
Classic: As described in definition.
Incomplete: Some preserved horizontal eye movements or limb movements.
Incidence and Prevalence
Locked-in syndrome is a rare disorder. There is no good data regarding the incidence or prevalence of locked-in syndrome.
References and Readings
- Bauby, J.-D. (1996). The diving bell and the butterfly: A memoir of life in death. New York: Vintage.Google Scholar
- Posner, J. B., Saper, C. B., Schiff, N. D., & Plum, F. (2007). Plum and Posner’s diagnosis of stupor and coma (4th ed.). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Bauby, J. D. (1997). The diving bell and the butterfly. New York: Vintage Books.Google Scholar