Encyclopedia of Clinical Neuropsychology

2018 Edition
| Editors: Jeffrey S. Kreutzer, John DeLuca, Bruce Caplan


  • Anna DePold HohlerEmail author
  • Marcus Ponce de Leon
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-57111-9_452




Dystonia is a syndrome of sustained, patterned, simultaneous muscle contractions of agonist and antagonist muscles. It can affect the head, neck, trunk, or limbs.

Current Knowledge

At times, dystonia may be associated with a tremor. It may increase with stress, anxiety, or fatigue. At times, it may also be painful, particularly when it involves the neck. It can involve one part of the body (focal), a region of the body (segmental), or the whole body (generalized). Most cases of primary generalized dystonia are believed to be hereditary or primary dystonias. Several dystonias have genetic causes. Secondary dystonias may be seen as a side effect of medications such as antiemetics and with various diseases such as Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease, Wilson’s disease, stroke, neoplasm, infections, and toxic exposures.


References and Readings

  1. Stacy, M. A. (2007). Handbook of dystonia. New York: Informa Healthcare USA.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Boston University Medical CenterBostonUSA
  2. 2.Madigan Army Medical CenterTacomaUSA