Encyclopedia of Clinical Neuropsychology

2018 Edition
| Editors: Jeffrey S. Kreutzer, John DeLuca, Bruce Caplan

Independent Living Centers

  • Amy J. ArmstrongEmail author
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-57111-9_403


The first Center for Independent Living was founded in 1972 by disability advocates in Berkeley, California. A Center for Independent Living (CIL) is defined in Section 702 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 (as amended) as “…a consumer-controlled, community-based, cross-disability, nonresidential private nonprofit agency that is designed and operated within a local community by individuals with disabilities and provides an array of independent living services.” 51% of the staff of an ILC and 51% of the board of directors must be persons with disabilities. As such CILs are a grassroots, civil rights advocacy program designed to assist persons with disabilities gain independence and to eliminate community barriers to independence.

Centers are funded in part by the US Department of Health and Human Services Administration for Community Living and the Administration on Disabilities (AoD) authorized by Title VII, Chapter I, Part B of the Rehabilitation Act, amended by the...

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References and Readings

  1. Administration for Community Living. (2016). U.S. department of health and human services. https://www.acl.gov/programs/aging-and-disability-networks/centers-independent-living.
  2. DeJong, G. (1979). Independent living: From social movement to analytic paradigm. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 60, 435–446.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Wolfensberger, W. (1972). The principle of normalization in human services. Toronto: National Institute on Mental Retardation.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Rehabilitation CounselingVirginia Commonwealth UniversityRichmondUSA