Brodmann’s area 17; Calcarine cortex; Occipital cortex; Striate cortex
The visual cortex is located in the occipital lobe of the brain and is composed of the primary visual cortex (striate cortex, Brodmann’s area 17) and the visual association areas (nonstriate visual cortex, Brodmann’s areas 18 and 19) (Milner 2006).
The visual cortex processes visual information including form, color, motion, and depth (Grill-Spector and Malach 2004). Cortical visual impairment may result from cerebrovascular disease, trauma, tumor, infection, degenerative disease, toxin, medication, migraine, psychosis, and other causes. The characteristic defect is loss of visual field. Unilateral impairment of the visual cortex causes loss of the opposite hemifield in each eye, usually sparing the central 10° of visual field, and is termed a macular sparing homonymous hemianopia. A defect at the pole of the occipital cortex that impacts central visual field is referred to as...