Encyclopedia of Clinical Neuropsychology

2018 Edition
| Editors: Jeffrey S. Kreutzer, John DeLuca, Bruce Caplan

Parkinson’s Disease

  • María Díez-Cirarda
  • Naroa Ibarretxe-Bilbao
  • Mark S. Baron
  • Javier Peña
  • Natalia OjedaEmail author
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-57111-9_349


Paralysis agitans; PD


Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disease characterized by motor symptomatology, with tremor, rigidity, postural instability, and bradykinesia. The disease also involves a wide range of nonmotor symptoms such as depression, cognitive impairment, sleep disturbances, and dysautonomia. Most of PD cases are idiopathic, but a small percentage of patients with the disease (3–5%) have genetic factors (Klein and Westenberger 2012). The causes of idiopathic PD are still unknown, but they seem to be related to both genetic and environmental factors (Kalia and Lang 2015). Interestingly, some factors are associated with an increased risk of developing PD such as exposure to pesticides or head injury and the exposure to both factors triples the risk of PD (Lee et al. 2012).

The neuropathological process of PD has been described by Braak and colleagues and divided into six stages (Braak et al. 2004). The stage 1is characterized by the...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References and Readings

  1. Braak, H., Ghebremedhin, E., Rüb, U., Bratzke, H., & Del Tredici, K. (2004). Stages in the development of parkinson’s disease-related pathology. Cell and Tissue Research, 318, 121–134.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. Chiaravalloti, N. D., Ibarretxe-Bilbao, N., DeLuca, J., Rusu, O., Pena, J., García-Gorostiaga, I., & Ojeda, N. (2014). The source of the memory impairment in parkinson’s disease: Acquisition versus retrieval. Movement Disorders, 29, 765–771.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. Connolly, B. S., & Lang, A. E. (2014). Pharmacological treatment of parkinson disease: A review. JAMA, 311, 1670–1683.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. De Lau, L. M., & Breteler, M. M. (2006). Epidemiology of parkinson’s disease. The Lancet Neurology, 5, 525–535.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. Goetz, C. G., Poewe, W., Rascol, O., et al. (2004). Movement disorder society task force report on the Hoehn and Yahr staging scale: Status and recommendations the movement disorder society task force on rating scales for parkinson’s disease. Movement Disorders, 19, 1020–1028.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. Hely, M. A., Reid, W. G., Adena, M. A., Halliday, G. M., & Morris, J. G. (2008). The Sydney multicenter study of parkinson’s disease: The inevitability of dementia at 20 years. Movement Disorders, 23, 837–844.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. Hoehn, M. M., & Yahr, M. D. (1998). Parkinsonism: Onset, progression, and mortality. 1967. Neurology, 50, 318–334.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. Hughes, A. J., Daniel, S. E., Kilford, L., & Lees, A. J. (1992). Accuracy of clinical diagnosis of idiopathic parkinson’s disease: A clinico-pathological study of 100 cases. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry, 55, 181–184.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Ibarretxe-Bilbao, N., Ramirez-Ruiz, B., Junque, C., et al. (2010). Differential progression of brain atrophy in parkinson’s disease with and without visual hallucinations. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry, 81, 650–657.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. Kalia, L. V., & Lang, A. E. (2015). Parkinson’s disease. The Lancet, 386, 896–912.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Keus, S. H., Bloem, B. R., Hendriks, E. J., Bredero-Cohen A. B., & Munneke, M. (2007). Evidence-based analysis of physical therapy in parkinson’s disease with recommendations for practice and research. Movement Disorders, 22, 451–460.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. Klein, C., & Westenberger, A. (2012). Genetics of parkinson’s disease. Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine, 2, a008888.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Lee, P. C., Bordelon, Y., Bronstein, J., & Ritz, B. (2012). Traumatic brain injury, paraquat exposure, and their relationship to parkinson disease. Neurology, 79, 2061–2066.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Leroi, I., McDonald, K., Pantula, H., & Harbishettar, V. (2012). Cognitive impairment in parkinson disease: Impact on quality of life, disability, and caregiver burden. Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry and Neurology, 25, 208–214.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. Leung, I. H. (2015). Cognitive training in parkinson disease. Neurology, 85, 1–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Marras, C., Rochon, P., & Lang, A. E. (2002). Predicting motor decline and disability in parkinson disease: A systematic review. Archives of Neurology, 59, 1724–1728.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. Martí, M. J., Tolosa, E., & Campdelacreu, J. (2003). Clinical overview of the synucleinopathies. Movement Disorders, 18, 21–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Martinez-Martin, P., Gil-Nagel, A., Gracia, L. M., Gómez, J. B., Martínez-Sarriés, J., & Bermejo, F. (1994). Unified parkinson’s disease rating scale characteristics and structure. Movement Disorders, 9, 76–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. McKeith, I. G., Dickson, D. W., Lowe, J., et al. (2005). Diagnosis and management of dementia with Lewy bodies: Third report of the DLB consortium. Neurology, 65, 1863–1872.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Muslimovic, D., Post, B., Speelman, J. D., & Schmand, B. (2005). Cognitive profile of patients with newly diagnosed parkinson disease. Neurology, 65, 1239–1245.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Okun, M. S. (2012). Deep-brain stimulation for parkinson’s disease. New England Journal of Medicine, 367, 1529–1538.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Pena, J., Ibarretxe-Bilbao, N., Garcia-Gorostiaga, I., Gomez-Beldarrain, M. A., Diez-Cirarda, M., & Ojeda, N. (2014). Improving functional disability and cognition in parkinson disease: Randomized controlled trial. Neurology, 83, 2167–2174.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Xia, R., & Mao, Z. (2012). Progression of motor symptoms in parkinson’s disease. Neuroscience Bulletin, 28, 39–48.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • María Díez-Cirarda
    • 1
  • Naroa Ibarretxe-Bilbao
    • 1
  • Mark S. Baron
    • 2
  • Javier Peña
    • 1
  • Natalia Ojeda
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Methods and Experimental Psychology, Faculty of Psychology and EducationUniversity of DeustoBilbaoSpain
  2. 2.Department of NeurologyVirginia Commonwealth University Parkinson’s and Movement Disorders CenterRichmondUSA