Visual fields refer to the entire region of space observed by both eyes. Visual fields can be subdivided into right and left hemifields. Cardinal positions are the specific eye movements that assess the function of extraocular muscles and the cranial nerves that innervate them.
Visual fields, the entire region of space observed by both eyes, can be divided either into central and peripheral regions or into right and left hemifields. Laterally located retinal cells respond to visual stimuli in central regions, whereas medially located retinal cells respond to stimuli in peripheral portions of the ipsilateral visual field. A lesion to an entire eye or its optic nerve therefore results in the loss of ipsilateral peripheral vision. Central ipsilateral and all of the contralateral visual field regions are still seen by the unaffected, contralateral eye.
As ganglion cells project their fibers into the CNS, visual pathways are reorganized. Medially...