Encyclopedia of Clinical Neuropsychology

2018 Edition
| Editors: Jeffrey S. Kreutzer, John DeLuca, Bruce Caplan

Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI)

  • Samantha BackhausEmail author
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-57111-9_286


Head injury; Head trauma

Short Description or Definition

According to the Essential Brain Injury Guide (2016, p. 3), a traumatic brain injury (TBI) is defined as “an alteration in brain function, or other evidence of brain pathology, caused by an external force.” Deficits can be transient or permanent and can cause partial or total disability. A TBI can result from an open or closed head injury. In an open head injury, there is breach of the skull or of the meninges, or a penetrating head injury where an object pierces through the skull (e.g., a gunshot wound) and enters brain tissue. In a closed injury, brain trauma is caused by a blow to the head or acceleration-deceleration injury.


Severity of Injury

TBI is rated in terms of severity of injury: mild, moderate, or severe. This rating is often based on the level of initial injury in relation to the neurological injury caused to the brain. Severity of brain injury is determined using the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS)...

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of NeuropsychologyRehabilitation Hospital of IndianaIndianapolisUSA