Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury
Childhood or adolescent brain injury
A pediatric traumatic brain injury is defined as a traumatic insult or blow to the head, occurring in childhood, which is sufficient to cause an altered state of consciousness. The injury is acquired and not developmental.
Penetrating (Open) Head Injuries
Penetrating head injuries involve an object penetrating the skull and entering into brain tissue. They account for nearly 10% of all childhood brain injuries. Neurological deficits and posttraumatic epilepsy are often subsequent to penetrating head injuries. Deficits typically reflect localization of brain injury. While an injury from the object can cause localizing effects, along the path of penetration, additional damage can occur from the object fragmenting into parts. Secondary injuries can also occur including cerebral infection, swelling, bleeding, and increased intracranial pressure.
Closed Head Injuries
Closed head injuries occur when the brain tissue is...
References and Readings
- Anderson, V. A. (2004). Pediatric head injury. In M. Rizzo & P. J. Eslinger (Eds.), Principles and practice of behavioral neurology and neuropsychology (pp. 863–879). Philadelphia: Elsevier Inc.Google Scholar
- British Pediatric Neurology Association. (2001). www.bpna.org.uk/audit/GCS.pdf
- Brown, J. (2016). Pediatrics and adolescents. In The essential brain injury guide (5th ed., pp. 286–317). McLean: Brain Injury Association of America.Google Scholar
- Fletcher, J. M., Miner, M. E., & Ewing-Cobbs, L. (1987). Age and recovery from head injury in children: Developmental issues. In H. S. Levin, J. Grafman, & H. M. Eisenberg (Eds.), Neurobehavioral recovery from head injury (pp. 279–291). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
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- Reitan, R. M., & Wolfson, D. (1992). Content and methodological organization of the Halstead-Reitan neuropsychological test battery for older children. In R. M. Reitan & D. Wolfson (Eds.), Neuropsychological evaluation of older children (pp. 71–116). South Tucson: Neuropsychology Press.Google Scholar
- Yeates, O. K. (2000). Closed-head injury. In K. O. Yeates, M. D. Ris, & H. G. Taylor (Eds.), Pediatric neuropsychology (pp. 92–116). New York: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar