Encyclopedia of Clinical Neuropsychology

2018 Edition
| Editors: Jeffrey S. Kreutzer, John DeLuca, Bruce Caplan

Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury

  • Samantha BackhausEmail author
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-57111-9_264


Childhood or adolescent brain injury


A pediatric traumatic brain injury is defined as a traumatic insult or blow to the head, occurring in childhood, which is sufficient to cause an altered state of consciousness. The injury is acquired and not developmental.


Penetrating (Open) Head Injuries

Penetrating head injuries involve an object penetrating the skull and entering into brain tissue. They account for nearly 10% of all childhood brain injuries. Neurological deficits and posttraumatic epilepsy are often subsequent to penetrating head injuries. Deficits typically reflect localization of brain injury. While an injury from the object can cause localizing effects, along the path of penetration, additional damage can occur from the object fragmenting into parts. Secondary injuries can also occur including cerebral infection, swelling, bleeding, and increased intracranial pressure.

Closed Head Injuries

Closed head injuries occur when the brain tissue is...

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References and Readings

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of NeuropsychologyRehabilitation Hospital of IndianaIndianapolisUSA