Mild Traumatic Brain Injury
Concussion; Mild brain injury; Sport-related concussion
Short Description or Definition
Mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) is a trauma-induced alteration in neurological function caused by a direct blow to the head or from rapid acceleration, deceleration, rotational, or percussive forces on brain tissue. Common mechanisms associated with MTBI include a motor vehicle accident, fall, assault, or contact sports. The diagnosis of MTBI is made based on identifying an event with adequate force to cause a concussive injury and by examining acute injury indicators to grade the severity of injury. Standard neurological examination and neuroimaging studies should not be relied on to diagnose MTBI (have limited sensitivity). Common clinical signs of MTBI include an alteration of mental status or behavior and can be accompanied by other symptoms outlined below.
Diagnosis and Categorization
Mild Versus Moderate to Severe Brain Injury: Spectrum of Brain Injury Severity
MTBI is best...
References and Readings
- Carroll, L. J., Cassidy, J. D., Cancelliere, C., Cote, P., Hincapie, C. A., Kristman, V. L.,... Hartvigsen, J. (2014). Systematic review of the prognosis after mild traumatic brain injury in adults: Cognitive, psychiatric, and mortality outcomes: Results of the international collaboration on mild traumatic brain injury prognosis. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 95(3 Suppl), S152–173. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apmr.2013.08.300.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hovda, D. A., Prins, M., Becker, D. P., Lee, S., Bergsneider, M., & Martin, N. A. (1999). Neurobiology of concussion. In J. E. Bailes, M. R. Lovell, & J. C. Maroon (Eds.), Sport-related concussion (pp. 12–51). St. Louis: MO Quality Medical.Google Scholar
- McCrea, M. (2008). Mild traumatic brain injury and postconcussion syndrome: The new evidence base for diagnosis and treatment. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- McCrory, P., Meeuwisse, W., Aubry, M., Cantu, B., Dvorak, J., Echemendia, R., . . . Turner, M. (2013). Consensus statement on concussion in sport – the 4th international conference on concussion in sport held in Zurich, November 2012. Physical Therapy in Sport, 14(2), e1-e13. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ptsp.2013.03.002.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Mielke, M. M., Savica, R., Wiste, H. J., Weigand, S. D., Vemuri, P., Knopman, D. S., . . . Jack, C. R., Jr. (2014). Head trauma and in vivo measures of amyloid and neurodegeneration in a population-based study. Neurology, 82(1), 70–76. https://doi.org/10.1212/01.wnl.0000438229.56094.54.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- National Center for Injury Prevention and Control. (2003). Report to congress on mild traumatic brain injury in the United States: Steps to prevent a serious public health problem. Atlanta: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.Google Scholar