Encyclopedia of Clinical Neuropsychology

2018 Edition
| Editors: Jeffrey S. Kreutzer, John DeLuca, Bruce Caplan

Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

  • Matthew R. PowellEmail author
  • Michael McCrea
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-57111-9_256

Synonyms

Concussion; Mild brain injury; Sport-related concussion

Short Description or Definition

Mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) is a trauma-induced alteration in neurological function caused by a direct blow to the head or from rapid acceleration, deceleration, rotational, or percussive forces on brain tissue. Common mechanisms associated with MTBI include a motor vehicle accident, fall, assault, or contact sports. The diagnosis of MTBI is made based on identifying an event with adequate force to cause a concussive injury and by examining acute injury indicators to grade the severity of injury. Standard neurological examination and neuroimaging studies should not be relied on to diagnose MTBI (have limited sensitivity). Common clinical signs of MTBI include an alteration of mental status or behavior and can be accompanied by other symptoms outlined below.

Diagnosis and Categorization

Mild Versus Moderate to Severe Brain Injury: Spectrum of Brain Injury Severity

MTBI is best...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References and Readings

  1. American Academy of Neurology. (1997). Practice parameter: The management of concussion in sports (summary statement). Report of the Quality Standards Subcommittee. Neurology, 48, 581–585.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. American Academy of Neurology. (2013). Summary of evidence-based guideline update: Evaluation and management of concussion in sports. Report of the guideline development subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology. Neurology, 80(24), 2250–2257.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Belanger, H. G., & Vanderploeg, R. D. (2005). The neuropsychological impact of sport-related concussion: A meta-analysis. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 11, 345–357.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. Cantu, R. C. (1986). Guidelines for return to contact sports after a cerebral concussion. Physician Sports Medicine, 14, 75–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cantu, R. C. (2001). Posttraumatic retrograde and anterograde amnesia: Pathophysiology and implications in grading and safe return to play. Journal of Athletic Training, 36, 244–248.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. Carroll, L. J., Cassidy, J. D., Cancelliere, C., Cote, P., Hincapie, C. A., Kristman, V. L.,... Hartvigsen, J. (2014). Systematic review of the prognosis after mild traumatic brain injury in adults: Cognitive, psychiatric, and mortality outcomes: Results of the international collaboration on mild traumatic brain injury prognosis. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 95(3 Suppl), S152–173.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apmr.2013.08.300.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Giza, C. C., & Hovda, D. A. (2014). The new neurometabolic cascade of concussion. Neurosurgery, 75(suppl_4), S24–S33.  https://doi.org/10.1227/NEU.0000000000000505.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. Holm, L., Cassidy, J. D., Carroll, L. J., & Borg, J. (2005). Summary of the WHO collaborating centre for neurotrauma task force on mild traumatic brain injury. Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, 37, 137–141.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Hovda, D. A., Prins, M., Becker, D. P., Lee, S., Bergsneider, M., & Martin, N. A. (1999). Neurobiology of concussion. In J. E. Bailes, M. R. Lovell, & J. C. Maroon (Eds.), Sport-related concussion (pp. 12–51). St. Louis: MO Quality Medical.Google Scholar
  10. Iverson, G. L. (2005). Outcome from mild traumatic brain injury. Current Opinion in Psychiatry, 18, 301–317.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Kay, T., Harrington, D. E., Adams, R., Anderson, T., Berrol, S., Cicerone, K., et al. (1993). Definition of mild traumatic brain injury. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 8(3), 86–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. McCrea, M. (2008). Mild traumatic brain injury and postconcussion syndrome: The new evidence base for diagnosis and treatment. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  13. McCrea, M., & Powell, M. R. (2012). The concussion clinic: A practical, evidence based model for assessment and management of sport related concussion. Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology, 6, 275–292.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. McCrory, P., Johnston, K., Meeuwisse, W., Aubry, M., Cantu, R., Dvorak, J., et al. (2005). Summary and agreement statement of the 2nd international conference on concussion in sport, Prague 2004. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 39, 196–204.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. McCrory, P., Meeuwisse, W., Aubry, M., Cantu, B., Dvorak, J., Echemendia, R., . . . Turner, M. (2013). Consensus statement on concussion in sport – the 4th international conference on concussion in sport held in Zurich, November 2012. Physical Therapy in Sport, 14(2), e1-e13.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ptsp.2013.03.002.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. Mielke, M. M., Savica, R., Wiste, H. J., Weigand, S. D., Vemuri, P., Knopman, D. S., . . . Jack, C. R., Jr. (2014). Head trauma and in vivo measures of amyloid and neurodegeneration in a population-based study. Neurology, 82(1), 70–76.  https://doi.org/10.1212/01.wnl.0000438229.56094.54.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. Mittenberg, W., Tremont, G., Zielinski, R. E., Fichera, S., & Rayls, K. (1996). Cognitive-behavioral prevention of postconcussion syndrome. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 11(2), 139–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Mittenberg, W., Canyock, E. M., Condit, D., & Patton, C. (2001). Treatment of post-concussion syndrome following mild head injury. Journal of Clinical & Experimental Neuropsychology, 23(6), 829–836.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. National Center for Injury Prevention and Control. (2003). Report to congress on mild traumatic brain injury in the United States: Steps to prevent a serious public health problem. Atlanta: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.Google Scholar
  20. Teasdale, G., & Jennett, B. (1974). Assessment of coma and impaired consciousness: A practical scale. The Lancet, 2(7872), 81–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Williams, D. H., Levin, H. S., & Eisenberg, H. M. (1990). Mild head injury classification. Neurosurgery, 27(3), 422–428.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Neurocognitive Disorders, Department of Psychiatry and PsychologyMayo ClinicRochesterUSA
  2. 2.Departments of Neurosurgery and Neurology, Medical College of WisconsinMilwaukeeUSA