Encyclopedia of Clinical Neuropsychology

2018 Edition
| Editors: Jeffrey S. Kreutzer, John DeLuca, Bruce Caplan

Memory Impairment

  • Benjamin Grover-MantheyEmail author
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-57111-9_254




Memory is the capacity to acquire, process, assimilate, and recall information. Memory impairment is an acquired inability to recall previously learned information or to lay down new memories.

Historical Background

Prior to animal studies and the development of imaging modalities, including functional MRI, knowledge regarding the formation and recollection of memory was historically gained from individual case studies. One famous case study involved patient H.M. who experienced profound amnesia following bilateral medial temporal lobe resection to control severe generalized seizures (Milner 1965, 1968). Much of his hippocampal formation, the amygdala, and adjacent medial cortex were removed or damaged. Despite premorbid above-average intelligence, he was left with profound global anterograde amnesia and moderate retrograde amnesia. Although H.M. was no longer able to intentionally recall previous experiences (explicit or declarative memory), his...

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© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Physical Medicine and RehabilitationIndiana UniversityIndianapolisUSA