Encyclopedia of Clinical Neuropsychology

2018 Edition
| Editors: Jeffrey S. Kreutzer, John DeLuca, Bruce Caplan


  • Matthew R. PowellEmail author
  • Michael McCrea
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-57111-9_226


Mild traumatic brain injury; Sport-related concussion


A concussion is a trauma-induced alteration in neurological function (Giza and Hovda 2014). Giza and Hovda (2014) and Hovda et al. (1999) expertly describe the abnormal neurometabolic processes associated with concussion. Early clinical signs of concussion include alteration of mental status or behavior and can be accompanied by other symptoms outlined below (see mild traumatic brain injury).


Diagnosis of concussion is made based on identifying an event with adequate biomechanical force to cause a concussive injury and by examining acute injury severity indicators. Common mechanisms associated with concussion include a motor vehicle accident, fall, assault, or contact sports. In addition to a direct blow to the head, a concussion can result from rapid acceleration, deceleration, rotational or percussive forces that affect brain tissue. Injury severity indicators frequently used to diagnose concussion...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References and Readings

  1. Belanger, H. G., & Vanderploeg, R. D. (2005). The neuropsychological impact of sports-related concussion: A meta-analysis. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 11, 345–357.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. Dikmen, S., Machamer, J., & Temkin, N. (2016). Mild traumatic brain injury: Longitudinal study of cognition, functional status, and post-traumatic symptoms. Journal of Neurotrauma, 33, 1–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Giza, C. C., & Hovda, D. A. (2014). The new neurometabolic cascade of concussion. Neurosurgery, 75(suppl_4), S24–S33.  https://doi.org/10.1227/NEU.0000000000000505.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. Hovda, D. A., Prins, M., Becker, D. P., Lee, S., Bergsneider, M., & Martin, N. A. (1999). Neurobiology of concussion. In J. E. Bailes, M. R. Lovell, & J. C. Maroon (Eds.), Sports-related concussion (pp. 12–51). St. Louis: Quality Medical.Google Scholar
  5. Iverson, G. L. (2005). Outcome from mild traumatic brain injury. Current Opinion in Psychiatry, 18, 301–317.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Kelly, J. P., & Rosenberg, J. H. (1997). Diagnosis and management of concussion in sports. Neurology, 48(3), 575–580.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. McCrea, M. (2008). Mild traumatic brain injury and postconcussion syndrome: The new evidence base for diagnosis and treatment. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  8. McCrea, M., & Powell, M. R. (2012). The concussion clinic: A practical, evidence based model for assessment and management of sport related concussion. Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology, 6, 275–292.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. McCrory, P., Meeuwisse, W., Aubry, M., Cantu, B., Dvorak, J., Echemendia, R. J., et al. (2013). Consensus statement on concussion in sport – the 4th international conference on concussion in sport held in Zurich, November 2012. Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine, 23(2), 89–117.  https://doi.org/10.1097/JSM.0b013e31828b67cf.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Mittenberg, W., Tremont, G., Zielinski, R. E., Fichera, S., & Rayls, K. (1996). Cognitive-behavioral prevention of postconcussion syndrome. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 11(2), 139–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Mittenberg, W., Canyock, E. M., Condit, D., & Patton, C. (2001). Treatment of post-concussion syndrome following mild head injury. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 23(6), 829–836.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. National Center for Injury Prevention and Control. (2003). Report to congress on mild traumatic brain injury in the United States: Steps to prevent a serious public health problem. Atlanta: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.Google Scholar
  13. Teasdale, G., & Jennett, B. (1974). Assessment of coma and impaired consciousness: A practical scale. The Lancet, 2(7872), 81–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Williams, D. H., Levin, H. S., & Eisenberg, H. M. (1990). Mild head injury classification. Neurosurgery, 27(3), 422–428.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Neurocognitive Disorders, Department of Psychiatry and PsychologyMayo ClinicRochesterUSA
  2. 2.Department of Neurosurgery and Neurology, Medical College of WisconsinMilwaukeeUSA