Cerebral angiitis or cerebral vasculitis is a relatively rare disease, characterized by inflammation of the blood vessels inside and leading to the brain. It may be caused either by a primary disease of the blood vessel walls producing inflammation or as a secondary phenomenon resulting from a systemic inflammatory disease such as systemic lupus erythematosus or certain infections.
Angiitis that is confined to the brain is relatively uncommon, and is called primary angiitis of the central nervous system (PACNS), isolated CNS vasculitis, primary CNS vasculitis, or granulomatous angiitis of the nervous system. It usually affects small- and medium-sized cerebral blood vessels, but does not involve blood vessels outside of the CNS. Headache and encephalopathy are the most frequent symptoms. Stroke occurs in about 20% of patients. Blood tests reflecting inflammation are usually normal, but magnetic resonance imaging of the brain is...