Encyclopedia of Clinical Neuropsychology

2018 Edition
| Editors: Jeffrey S. Kreutzer, John DeLuca, Bruce Caplan

Transient Ischemic Attack

  • Elliot J. RothEmail author
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-57111-9_2208




A transient ischemic attack (TIA) is an episode in which neurological symptoms occur as a result of cerebrovascular disease but resolve completely within 24 h.

Current Knowledge

Practically speaking, most TIAs resolve within 1 or 2 h. They are caused by a temporary interruption of blood supply to an area of the brain, usually from a blood clot in the blood vessel, which results in a sudden, brief decrease in brain function and resulting neurological deficits. In order to be defined as a TIA, the episode must be followed by complete recovery of neurological function. Therefore, a TIA is not a “ministroke,” because the effects of a stroke are persistent beyond 24 h. However, the symptoms and findings of TIA are identical to those of stroke and include sudden onset of confusion, eye pain, facial paralysis, falling, weakness of arm and/or leg, gait changes, loss of coordination, loss of balance, numbness, tingling, vertigo, dysarthria, visual changes, and others.


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References and Readings

  1. Easton, J. D., Saver, J. L., Albers, G. W., Alberts, M. J., Chaturvedi, S., Feldmann, E., et al. (2009). Definition and evaluation of transient ischemic attack: A scientific statement for healthcare professionals from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association Stroke Council; Council on Cardiovascular Surgery and Anesthesia; Council on Cardiovascular Radiology and Intervention; Council on Cardiovascular Nursing; and the Interdisciplinary Council on Peripheral Vascular Disease. Stroke, 40, 2276–2293.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Sacco, R. L., Adams, R., Albers, G., Alberts, M. J., Benavente, O., Furie, K., et al. (2006). Guidelines for prevention of stroke in patients with ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack: A statement for healthcare professionals from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association Council on Stroke. Stroke, 37, 577–617.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Physical Medicine and RehabilitationNorthwestern University, Feinberg School of MedicineChicagoUSA