Encyclopedia of Clinical Neuropsychology

2018 Edition
| Editors: Jeffrey S. Kreutzer, John DeLuca, Bruce Caplan

Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

  • Dona LockeEmail author
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-57111-9_220


Adult respiratory distress syndrome; Respiratory distress syndrome


Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is the presence of pulmonary edema in the absence of volume overload or depressed left ventricular function and is characterized by the development of sudden breathlessness within hours to days of an inciting event. ARDS is not a specific disease; instead, it is a type of severe, acute lung dysfunction that is associated with a variety of diseases and trauma.

Historical Background

In the past, ARDS signified adult respiratory distress syndrome to separate this from infant respiratory distress syndrome seen in premature infants. However, this type of pulmonary edema can also occur in children, so ARDS has gradually evolved to mean acute rather than adult.

Current Knowledge

ARDS typically develops within 12–48 h after the inciting event, although, in rare instances, it may take up to a few days. Persons developing ARDS are critically ill, often with...

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References and Readings

  1. Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome. (2012). The Berlin definition. Journal of the American Medical Association, 307(23), 2526–2533.Google Scholar
  2. Bernard, G. R., Artigas, A., Brigham, K. L., Charlet, J., Falke, K., Hudson, L., Lamy, M., Legall, J. R., Morris, A., & Spragg, R. (1994). Report of the American-European consensus conference on ARDS: Definitions, mechanisms, relevant outcomes and clinical trial coordination. Intensive Care Medicine, 20, 225–232.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Psychiatry and PsychologyMayo ClinicScottsdaleUSA