Encyclopedia of Clinical Neuropsychology

2018 Edition
| Editors: Jeffrey S. Kreutzer, John DeLuca, Bruce Caplan

Intracerebral Hemorrhage

  • Elliot J. RothEmail author
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-57111-9_2183

Synonyms

Hemorrhagic stroke; ICH; Intracranial hemorrhage; Intraparenchymal hemorrhage

Definition

An intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) – bleeding into the brain – can result from trauma but more commonly results spontaneously when the wall of a blood vessel in the brain bursts, allowing blood to leak into the tissue of the brain, producing a type of stroke.

Current Knowledge

The sudden appearance of blood in the brain can be irritating or toxic to brain cells, and the increase in intracranial pressure causes additional brain damage. Although ICH usually occurs in the basal ganglia, brainstem, and cerebellum, it also can involve the cerebral hemispheres and cortex. Intracerebral hemorrhages account for an estimated 10–15% of all strokes. It occurs at all ages, but it tends to affect younger people more commonly than do ischemic strokes, and its incidence among African-Americans is double than that of other racial groups. ICH is most frequently caused by sudden episodes of extreme...

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References

  1. Cai, X., & Rosand, J. (2015). The evaluation and management of adult intracerebral hemorrhage. Seminars in Neurology, 35, 638–645.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
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  3. Hemphill, J. C., III, Greenberg, S. M., Anderson, C. S., et al. (2015). Guidelines for the management of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage. A guideline for healthcare professionals from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association. Stroke, 46, 2032–2060.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. van Asch, C. J., Luitse, M. J., Rinkel, G. J., et al. (2010). Incidence, case fatality, and functional outcome of intracerebral haemorrhage over time, according to age, sex, and ethnic origin: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet Neurology, 9, 167–176.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Physical Medicine and RehabilitationNorthwestern University, Feinberg School of MedicineChicagoUSA