Encyclopedia of Clinical Neuropsychology

2018 Edition
| Editors: Jeffrey S. Kreutzer, John DeLuca, Bruce Caplan

Congestive Heart Failure

  • Elliot J. RothEmail author
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-57111-9_2171


Heart failure


Congestive heart failure (CHF) or heart failure is a condition in which the heart muscle is unable to pump sufficient blood to adequately supply the body’s organs.

Current Knowledge

Common causes of CHF include coronary artery disease, myocardial infarction, hypertension, cardiac valve disease, cardiomyopathy (heart muscle disease), congenital heart disease, and endocarditis (heart infection). In CHF, the heart continues to pump, but exercise and activity cause shortness of breath (“dyspnea on exertion” or DOE), fatigue, weakness, light-headedness, or syncope. Because the heart is not pumping the blood completely and effectively, the blood “backs up” into the heart chambers and ultimately into the venous system. This causes congestion of the tissues and edema in the legs and internal organs, including the lungs (“pulmonary edema”), often resulting in shortness of breath, especially when lying supine (“orthopnea”). Electrocardiogram and certain blood...

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References and Readings

  1. Jessup, M., Abraham, W. T., Casey, D. E., Feldman, A. M., Francis, G. S., Ganiats, T. G., et al. (2009). Focused update: ACCF/AHA guidelines for the diagnosis and management of heart failure in adults: A report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association task force on practice guidelines, developed in collaboration with the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. Circulation, 119, 1977–2016.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Physical Medicine and RehabilitationNorthwestern University, Feinberg School of MedicineChicagoUSA