Encyclopedia of Clinical Neuropsychology

2018 Edition
| Editors: Jeffrey S. Kreutzer, John DeLuca, Bruce Caplan


  • Bruce J. DiamondEmail author
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-57111-9_2153


Severe hypoxia; Severe oxygen deficiency


Hypoxia refers to a decrease in oxygen supply rather than a complete loss of oxygenation (Jones 2015). Anoxia refers to an extreme hypoxia or deficiency in the oxygenation of the arterial blood of sufficient severity to result in permanent neurologic damage (Webster 2006). This vulnerability to severely reduced oxygenation is based on the fact that the brain has little to no reserve of oxygen or glucose, consequently an anoxic episode of 4–6 min can result in neuronal cell death or necrosis because of impairment in cellular metabolism (Zillmer and Spiers 2001).


Anoxia can result from a number of conditions including cardiac arrest, carbon monoxide poisoning, stroke, brain injury, and complications due to anesthesia. It is thought that cells exposed to anoxia release glutamate. The CA1 cells of the hippocampus contain high concentrations of glutamate and are particularly vulnerable to subnormal oxygenation levels....

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References and Readings

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychologyWilliam Paterson UniversityWayneUSA