Encyclopedia of Clinical Neuropsychology

2018 Edition
| Editors: Jeffrey S. Kreutzer, John DeLuca, Bruce Caplan

Ruff 2 and 7 Selective Attention Test

  • Ronald RuffEmail author
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-57111-9_2145


2 and 7 test


The Ruff 2 and 7 Selective Attention test is based on a model of selective attention (Logan 1988; Schneider and Shiffrin 1977) that posits that the ability to select targets is influenced by the distracter stimuli. For example, when the target numbers of 2 and 7 are embedded among similar distracters (other numbers), then Controlled Search is required. However, when the target numbers of 2 and 7 are interspersed among alphabetical letters, then the identification is enhanced due to Automatic Detection. This Automatic Detection is attributed to the categorical distinction between numbers and letters that is overlearned, and hence an automatic selection is evident even in semiliterate individuals. Although most of the research with this model was conducted with tachitoscopes, the 2 and 7 test examines Controlled Search and Automatic Detectionin a paper-and-pencil format. The measure spans 5 continuous minutes during which 2s and 7s need to be...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References and Readings

  1. Baser, C. A., & Ruff, R. M. (1987). Construct validity of the San Diego neuropsychological test battery. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 2, 13–32.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. Bate, A. J., Mathias, J. L., & Crawford, J. R. (2001). Performance on the test of everyday attention and standard tests of attention following severe traumatic brain injury. The Clinical Neuropsychologist, 15, 405–422.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Judd, P. H., & Ruff, R. M. (1993). Neuropsychological dysfunction in borderline personality disorder. Journal of Personality Disorders, 7, 275–284.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Knight, R. G., McMahon, J., Skeaff, C. M., & Green, T. J. (2010). Reliable change indeces for Ruff 2 and 7 Selective Attention Test in Older Adults. Applied Neuropsycholgy, 17,239–245.Google Scholar
  5. Logan, G. D. (1988). Toward an instance theory of automatization. Psychology Review, 95, 492–527.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Mitrushina, M., Boone, K. B., Razani, J., & D’Elia, L. F. (2005). Handbook of normative data for neuropsychological assessment (2nd ed.). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  7. Ruff, R. M. (1994). What role does depression play on the performance of the Ruff 2 & 7 selective attention test? Perceptual and Motor Skills, 78, 63–66.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Ruff, R. M., & Allen, C. C. (1996). Ruff 2 & 7 selective attention test: Professional manual. Odessa: Psychological Assessment Resources.Google Scholar
  9. Ruff, R. M., Niemann, H., Allen, C. C., Farrow, C. E., & Wylie, T. (1992). The Ruff 2 and 7 selective attention test: A neuropsychological application. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 75, 1311–1319.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Ruff, R. M., Marshall, L. F., Crouch, J. A., Klauber, M. R., Levin, H. S., Barth, J. T., et al. (1993). Predictors of outcome following severe head trauma: Follow-up data from the Traumatic Coma Data Bank. Brain Injury, 7, 101–111.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Schmitt, R. A., Bigley, J. W., McKinnis, R., Logue, P. E., Evans, R. W., Drucker, J. L., et al. (1988). Neuropsychological outcome of Zidovudine (AZT) treatment of patients with AIDS and AIDS-related complex. New England Journal of Medicine, 319, 1573–1578.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Schneider, J., & Shiffrin, R. M. (1977). Controlled and automatic human information processing: I. Detection, search and attention. Psychological Review, 84, 1–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Strauss, E., Sherman, E., & Spreen, O. (2006). A compendium of neuropsychological tests (3rd ed.). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  14. Weiss, K. M. (1996). A simple clinical assessment of attention in schizophrenics. Psychiatry Research, 60, 147–154.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.San Francisco Clinical NeurosciencesUniversity of CaliforniaSan FranciscoUSA