Encyclopedia of Clinical Neuropsychology

2018 Edition
| Editors: Jeffrey S. Kreutzer, John DeLuca, Bruce Caplan

Psychomotor Retardation

  • Chris LoftisEmail author
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-57111-9_2126


Psychomotor slowing


Psychomotor retardation is a visible slowing of cognitive and/or physical activity, resulting in slowed performance and reduced accuracy on visual, auditory, and motor tasks. It is often seen in clinical depression or bipolar depression as well as in various neurological conditions such as stroke, traumatic brain injury, multiple sclerosis, hydrocephalus, carbon monoxide poisoning, and diabetes mellitus. Aging results in slowing all aspects of behavior, such as reduced rate of ambulation or dressing, delayed responses to questions, and low scores on neuropsychological tests such as finger tapping and Trail Making. Effects may be seen in compromised daily activities such as balancing one’s checkbook, making a shopping list, and decision-making. The etiology of psychomotor retardation can be variable, resulting from impaired functioning of multiple cortical or subcortical areas that create patterns of mental inefficiency, such as reduced auditory...

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References and Readings

  1. (1983). Psychomotor retardation: Clinical, theoretical, and psychometric aspects. Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 6(1), 27–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Parker, G., Hadzi-Pavlovic, D., Brodaty, H., Boyce, P., Mitchell, P., Wilhelm, K., et al. (1993). Psychomotor disturbance in depression: Defining the constructs. Journal of Affective Disorders, 27(4), 255–265.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Hannay, J. H., Howieson, D. B., Loring, D. W., Fischer, J. S., & Lezak, M. D. (2004). Neuropathology for neuropsychologists. In M. D. Lezak, D. B. Dowiewson, & D. W. Loring (Eds.), Neuropsychological assessment (4th ed., pp. 157–285). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.National Council for Community Behavioral HealthcareAlexandriaUSA